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Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. on Abraham Lincoln

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. on Abraham Lincoln


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Abraham Lincoln : the tribute of a century, 1809-1909 : commemorative of the Lincoln centenary and containing the principal speeches made in connection therewith

The Chicago commemoration: The unity of the nation / Hon. William J. Calhoun -- Abraham Lincoln: a man of the people / President Woodrow Wilson -- A citizen of no mean country / Hon. Frank Hamlin -- The significance of Lincoln / Hon. J.A. Macdonald -- A memory of Lincoln / Hon. Charles H. Wacker -- Abraham Lincoln of Illinois / President Edwin Erle Sparks -- The figure of an age / Hon. Stephen S. Gregory -- The great commoner / Dr. Emil G. Hirsch -- The greatest apostle of human liberty / Col. John R. Marshall -- The unfinished task / Rev. A.J. Carey -- The liberation of the Negro / Rev. J.W.E. Bowen -- Lincoln: the friend of all men / Nathan William MacChesney -- The Negro's place in national life / Hon. William J. Calhoun -- The other side of the question / Rev. A.J. Carey -- The cathedral utterance of Lincoln / Dr. Charles J. Little -- The literary side of Lincoln / Dr. Bernard J. Cigrand -- The Freeport debate / Gen. Smith D. Atkins -- Two momentous meetings / Maj.-Gen. Frederick Dent Grant -- A voice from the South / Hon. J.M. Dickinson -- Abraham Lincoln at the bar of Illinois / John T. Richards -- The evolution of the Gettysburg Address / Hon. John C. Richberg -- The merit of a mighty name / Judge W.G. Ewing -- Power in loneliness / Judge Peter Stenger Grosscup --

The Springfield commemoration: Lincoln as an orator / Hon. William J. Bryan -- Lincoln as France saw him / Jon. Jean Adrien Jusserand --

The Illinois Supreme Court commemoration: The centenary of Lincoln / Nathan William MacChesney -- Lincoln's preparation for the presidency / Justice Hand --

The Bloomington commemoration: Lincoln the statesman / Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson -- Lincoln the lawyer, and his Bloomington speeches / R.M. Benjamin --

The Peoria commemoration: Lincoln's diplomacy / Kogoro Takahira -- Lincoln, the man of the people (poem) / Edwin Markham --

The Hodgenville commemoration: A son of Kentucky / Augustus E. Wilson -- Abraham Lincoln / Hon. Theodore Roosevelt -- Lincoln and the lost cause / Hon. Luke E. Wright -- Abraham Lincoln, leader and master of men / Gen. James Grant Wilson -- The Lincoln Memorial / Hon. Joseph W. Folk --

The New York commemoration: Abraham Lincoln at Cooper Institute / Hon. Joseph Hodges Choate -- Lincoln as a labor leader / Rev. Lyman Abbott -- On the plain people / Hon. Chauncey M. Depew --

The Boston commemoration: A vision (poem) / Julia Ward Howe -- The great pacificator / Hon. John D. Long -- Lincoln: "Valiant for truth" / Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge --

The Cincinnati commemoration: Abraham Lincoln, an appreciation / Bishop William F. McDowell --

The Rochester commemoration: Lincoln, the true American / Hon. Charles Evans Hughes --

The Denver commemoration: Abraham Lincoln, the perfect ruler of men / Joseph Farrand Tuttle, Jr. --

The Washington commemoration: Lincoln and the character of American civilization / Hon. Joaquim Nabueo --

The Philadelphia commemoration: Preserver of the Union, savior of the Republic, reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln / Major William H. Lambert --

The Cornell University commemoration: Abraham Lincoln, master of time / Hon. Frank S. Black --

The Pittsburg commemoration: Lincoln, the greatest American / Hon. James Schoolcraft Sherman --

The Janesville commemoration: The apostle of opportunity / Hon. George R. Peck -- An ex-slave's tribute to the emancipator / Dr. Booker T. Washington -- Lincoln and his relations with Congress / Hon. Shelby M. Cullom --

The commemoration abroad: Manchester, England -- Berlin, Germany: Lincoln's hundredth birthday (poem) / William Morris Davis The man for the hour / Alexander Montgomery Thackara -- Paris, France: From Washington to Lincoln / Dr. Henry van Dyke -- Rome, Italy: The American Union and Italy / Hon. Lloyd C. Griscom -- The man Lincoln (poem) / Wilbur D. Nesbit

Monaghan, J. Lincoln bibliography

Oakleaf, J. Lincoln bibliography

Lincoln copy: Book, bound in boards with cloth spine frontispiece

Lincoln copy: Handwritten inscription in ink on flyleaf: To Mr. James R. Thorpe, with the cordial good wishes of Nathan William MacChesney, Estes Park, Colorado, 23rd July, 1911


A Communication

From time to time AMERICAN HERITAGE will publish letters which seem to have special interest for its readers. The following letter from the U.S. Ambassador at the United Nations deals with the article on the elder Henry Cabot Lodge which appeared in the August issue.

There are three specific points concerning your article about my grandfather, the late Henry Cabot Lodge, by John A. Garraty which I should like to make as a matter of fairness—and one general point which I hope has practical contemporary value.

2. The title of the article is “Spoiled Child of American Politics”—a title which is belied by the very text of the article itself, which shows that throughout his life in “American politics” my grandfather was constantly being opposed, criticized, attacked, resisted, and was anything but “spoiled” in the sense of having his own way.

2. To say that my grandfather believed “that the only good Democrat” was “a politically dead one” is certainly disproved by his vote in 1922 when he carried Democratic wards and precincts, without which he could not have been elected, and which he certainly would not have done had he detested Democrats.

3. Twice in the article the phrase “selfishness and vanity” is used to characterize my grandfather, but nowhere is this characterization sustained by fact. I knew him well and was very intimate with him. I never met a more unselfish man nor a more modest and humble one.

My general point is as follows:

Mr. Garraty’s statement that my grandfather believed that in international affairs a nation should never sign a treaty that “it was not prepared to carry out to the letter” is precisely what we have learned and generally accept today.

Thirty years ago many favored the “hitch your wagon to a star” procedure, whereby legal commitments would be undertaken in the vague hope that this would somehow improve matters, even though it was clear that such commitments would not be lived up to when the test came.

Today, however, it is generally recognized that to seek—and obtain—legal commitments which become a dead letter at the first test is a disservice to the cause of peace, leads to disrespect for law, and is an approach to the problem which is immature.

At the United Nations the legal power which the United Nations possesses was not used even when it could have been used in the case of the Korean aggression. Rather, an attempt was made to mobilize world opinion.

We have learned that it is always futile—and often dangerous-to try to force world opinion into a legalistic strait jacket. We have learned that, instead, the amount of public support for common international action varies from year to year and from issue to issue, and that it is the function of an international organization to mobilize to the maximum the world opinion which actually exists at any given moment.

This is the spirit of the United Nations—and of regional organizations, such as NATO, for instance. They do not pledge any guarantees of territorial integrity (which would certainly not be lived up to) but, instead, they declare that an attack on one is an attack on all and that, when such an attack occurs, the parties will consult. This is a far cry indeed from Article X of the League with its rigid advance requirement of support of specific terrain regardless of military, strategic and political realities.

My grandfather wished to change the League of Nations Covenant, for example, so that (1) the United States would be the sole judge of whether a matter involving its interests was or was not a domestic question (2) the United States would not have merely equal power with the small nations and (3) that United States military actions to preserve the territorial integrity of a nation must first be approved by Congress.

These ideas all foreshadowed basic provisions of the United Nations Charter. Events have shown, therefore, that in his grasp of international affairs, he was truly ahead of his time.

Mr. Garraty says that Henry Cabot Lodge was “often wrong, but never evil.” I agree that he was “never evil,” but I suggest also that he was “often right.”


Cemetery walks: Miles to go before we sleep

Looking for somewhere to take a contemplative walk and a break from today&rsquos uncertain times? By design, many cemeteries &ndash particularly the rural or garden variety which gradually replaced churchyard burying grounds over the course of the 19th century &ndash afford peace and quiet, and the opportunity for reflection.

Today, with their paved roads and walkways, cemeteries &ndash some flat and others with hills &ndash are ideal for walking.

And while they offer solitude, even on the quietest of days you&rsquoll rarely be entirely alone. Cemeteries are home to birds and other animals &ndash squirrels and rabbits, the occasional deer or turkey, or, if there is a nearby pond or stream, perhaps geese, turtles, even a swan or two.

As you stroll, you will inevitably wonder about the lives of the people whose names are carved on the gravestones and monuments you pass along the way. If you&rsquore in or near your hometown, some of the names will undoubtedly be familiar and conjure up memories of people you&rsquove known.

All the while, you can take in the landscape architecture that provides the setting for the often intricately designed granite, greenstone, limestone, slate and marble tombstones and family mausoleums that surround you.

For history buffs, avid readers, followers of politics, and fans of the arts, cemeteries throughout Massachusetts offer the opportunity to visit the final resting places of some of America&rsquos best-known figures.

There are beautiful and historic cemeteries throughout the Commonwealth. In and around Boston, here are some to consider:

King's Chapel Burying Ground, 58 Tremont St., Boston

John Winthrop, Massachusetts&rsquo first governor, and Mary Chilton, the first woman to step off the Mayflower, are among those buried in King&rsquos Chapel Burying Ground in downtown Boston. Established in 1630, this is one of the three oldest cemeteries in Boston, along with Phipps Street Burying Ground in Charlestown and Roxbury&rsquos Eliot Burying Ground.

Granary Burying Ground, Tremont Street between Park and School streets, Boston

Adjacent to Park Street Church and just steps from Boston Common, the Granary is home to the remains of thousands of Boston citizens, including Massachusetts governors, mayors, clergymen, three signers of the Declaration of Independence &ndash Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and Robert Treat Paine &ndash and patriot, craftsman, and famed midnight rider Paul Revere. Near the center of the burying ground, a 25-foot-tall obelisk sits atop the tomb of Benjamin Franklin's parents.

Mount Auburn Cemetery, 580 Mount Auburn St., Cambridge

Mount Auburn is the first rural, or garden, cemetery in the United States. Dedicated in 1831, Mount Auburn&rsquos rolling hills, landscaped grounds, and classical monuments, combined with its use of the term &ldquocemetery&rdquo &ndash from the Greek for sleeping place &ndash marked the shift away from the Colonial-era tradition of church-affiliated burying grounds.

Among those buried here are actor Edwin Booth, cookbook author Fannie Farmer, Church of Christ, Scientist founder Mary Baker Eddy, artist Winslow Homer, poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, politicians Henry Cabot Lodge and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., philosopher John Rawls, actress Anne Revere, historian and presidential speechwriter Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., psychologist Abraham Maslow, and sculptor Anne Whitney, buried alongside her companion Abby Adeline Manning.

Forest Hills Cemetery, 99 Forest Hills Ave., Boston

Forest Hills is a rural garden cemetery, sculpture garden, and public park with horticultural features designed by its founder A.S. Dearborn in the mid-1800s. Notables buried here include playwright and Nobel Laureate Eugene O'Neill (&ldquoLong Day&rsquos Journey into Night&rdquo) poets e.e. cummings and Anne Sexton, National Center for Afro-American Arts founder Elma Lewis, Boston Celtics player Reggie Lewis, suffragist and abolitionist Lucy Stone, philanthropist and co-founder of Boston&rsquos North Bennet Street School Pauline Agassiz Shaw, and abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison.

St. Joseph&rsquos Cemetery, 990 Lagrange St., West Roxbury

A veritable history of 20th-century Boston politics rests here as former Boston mayors John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, John B. Hynes, John F. Collins, and Kevin H. White are all buried at St. Joseph&rsquos, along with legendary Boston Pops conductor Arthur Fiedler and notorious crime figure James &ldquoWhitey&rdquo Bulger.

Holyhood Cemetery, 584 Heath St., Brookline

Among those buried at Holyhood are professional baseball player George Wright, Irish poet and journalist John Boyle O&rsquoReilly, and Ambassador and Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy along with other members of their family, including their daughter Rosemary Kennedy and their grandchildren David and Michael, sons of Robert and Ethel Kennedy, and Kara, daughter of Edward and Joan Kennedy.

Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Bedford St., Concord

A rural cemetery, Sleepy Hollow &ndash with its famed Author&rsquos Ridge &ndash is the burial site of some of America&rsquos best-known writers and thinkers including Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, and more. Also buried at Sleepy Hollow are Lincoln Memorial sculptor Daniel Chester French, and television director Marc Daniels, who directed the first 38 episodes of &ldquoI Love Lucy,&rdquo 15 episodes of &ldquoStar Trek&rdquo and many other shows.

Sharon Memorial Park, 120 Canton St., Sharon

Serving the Jewish community and established in 1948, the same year as the formation of Israel, Sharon Memorial Park is the final resting place of billionaire media mogul Sumner Redstone, who passed away Aug. 11 at age 97. Also interred here are Dr. Melvin Glimcher, a leader in the development of artificial limbs and grandfather of current 4th District Congressional candidate Jake Auchincloss, and AIDS activist Elizabeth Glaser, co-founder of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation.

Milton Cemetery, 211 Centre St., Milton

Established in 1672 as a burying ground, Milton Cemetery added a &ldquonew&rdquo section, in the rural cemetery style, in 1854, and expanded further with a &ldquomodern section&rdquo in 1945. Among those interred here are Howard Johnson&rsquos restaurant and hotel chain founder Howard Deering Johnson, abolitionist Wendell Phillips, American Impressionist painter Dennis Miller Bunker, and actor and vaudevillian Nathaniel &ldquoNat&rdquo Goodwin.

Two topiary elephants gently grace the grounds of Milton Cemetery, in the shade of mature trees. Elephants are known to have long memories. They also often linger with their dead, standing by the body of a deceased elephant for hours and even later returning to the site.


Nixon and Lodge in 1960

Forty-four years ago, Massachusetts was represented on both the Republican and Democratic presidential tickets. These porcelain mugs depicting Richard M. Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (of Massachusetts) date from the 1960 election, in which Nixon and Lodge were defeated by John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, and his running mate Lyndon B. Johnson. Although the popular vote was close (out of nearly 69,000,000 votes cast, only 118,000 votes separated the two candidates), Kennedy and Johnson won the Electoral College vote 303 to 219.

The 1960 contest was the first in which television played a major (some might say, deciding) role. On 26 September 1960, more than 70,000,000 viewers tuned in to see the first-ever televised presidential debate. Perhaps, however, it was these mugs that influenced the result of the election. The handles are elephants' trunks, turned downward - a sure sign of bad luck. Richard B. Wigglesworth, the Massachusetts Republican who owned the mugs, died a few weeks before the election, never knowing the outcome.

Richard Bowditch Wigglesworth served Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives from 1928 to 1958. From 1959 until his death in 1960, he served as ambassador to Canada. Wigglesworth's family presented the Nixon and Lodge mugs to the MHS, along with a very large collection of his personal and political papers.


Political memorabilia at the MHS

While most of the political artifacts in the MHS collection are campaign buttons and bumper stickers, there are unusual pieces including a brass "Long live the President" button, dating from Washington's 1789 inauguration, a John Adams cuff-link, a cake of soap manufactured in 1840 for the Harrison/Tyler campaign, and ferrotype tokens from Abraham Lincoln's 1860 and 1864 campaigns. For the modern era there is an FDR necktie from 1940, a substantial collection of political ephemera for Leverett Saltonstall's long political career, and, in addition to the Nixon-Lodge mugs, a bronzed hot dog presented to Henry Cabot Lodge in 1960.

Whether you have a "Click with Dick" clicker from the 1960 election or political memorabilia or papers from any era, the Historical Society welcomes donations of historical materials from Republicans, Democrats, third-party members, and political independents alike.


Contents

He was born in Boston on February 16, 1838, into one of the country's most prominent families. His parents were Charles Francis Adams, Sr. (1807–1886) and Abigail Brooks (1808–1889). [2] Both his paternal grandfather, John Quincy Adams, and great-grandfather, John Adams, one of the most prominent among the Founding Fathers, had been U.S. Presidents. His maternal grandfather, Peter Chardon Brooks, was one of Massachusetts' most successful and wealthiest merchants. Another great-grandfather, Nathaniel Gorham, signed the Constitution.

After his graduation from Harvard University in 1858, [3] he embarked on a grand tour of Europe, during which he also attended lectures in civil law at the University of Berlin. He was initiated into the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity as honorary member at the 1893 Columbian Exposition by Harris J. Ryan, a judge for the exhibit on electrical engineering. Through that organization, he was a member of the Irving Literary Society.

Adams returned home from Europe in the midst of the heated presidential election of 1860. He tried his hand again at law, taking employment with Judge Horace Gray's Boston firm, but this was short-lived. [4]

His father, Charles Francis Adams, Sr., was also seeking re-election to the US House of Representatives. [4] After his successful re-election, Charles Francis asked Henry to be his private secretary, continuing a father-son pattern set by John and John Quincy and suggesting that Charles Francis had chosen Henry as the political scion of that generation of the family. Henry shouldered the responsibility reluctantly and with much self-doubt. "[I] had little to do", he reflected later, "and knew not how to do it rightly." [5]

During this time, Adams was the anonymous Washington correspondent for Charles Hale's Boston Daily Advertiser.

London (1861–68) Edit

On March 19, 1861, Abraham Lincoln appointed Charles Francis Adams, Sr. United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Henry accompanied his father to London as his private secretary. He also became the anonymous London correspondent for the New York Times. The two Adamses were kept very busy, monitoring Confederate diplomatic intrigues and trying to obstruct the construction of Confederate commerce raiders by British shipyards (see Alabama Claims). Henry's writings for the Times argued that Americans should be patient with the British. While in Britain, Adams was befriended by many noted men, including Charles Lyell, Francis T. Palgrave, Richard Monckton Milnes, James Milnes Gaskell, and Charles Milnes Gaskell. He worked to introduce the young Henry James to English society, with the help of his closest and lifelong friend Charles Milnes Gaskell and his wife Lady Catherine (nee Wallop). [6]

While in Britain, Henry read and was taken with the works of John Stuart Mill. For Adams, Mill's Considerations on Representative Government showed the necessity of an enlightened, moral, and intelligent elite to provide leadership to a government elected by the masses and subject to demagoguery, ignorance, and corruption. Henry wrote to his brother Charles that Mill demonstrated to him that "democracy is still capable of rewarding a conscientious servant." [7] His years in London led Adams to conclude that he could best provide that knowledgeable and conscientious leadership by working as a correspondent and journalist.

In 1868, Adams returned to the United States and settled in Washington, DC, where he began working as a journalist. Adams saw himself as a traditionalist longing for the democratic ideal of the 17th and 18th centuries. Accordingly, he was keen on exposing political corruption in his journalism.

Harvard professor Edit

In 1870, Adams was appointed professor of medieval history at Harvard, a position he held until his early retirement in 1877 at 39. [3] As an academic historian, Adams is considered to have been the first (in 1874–1876) to conduct historical seminar work in the United States. Among his students was Henry Cabot Lodge, who worked closely with Adams as a graduate student.

Adams was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1875. [8]

Author Edit

Adams's The History of the United States of America (1801 to 1817) (9 vols., 1889–1891) is a highly detailed history of the Jefferson and Madison administrations with a focus on diplomacy. [9] Wide praise was given for its literary merit, especially the opening five chapters of volume 1, describing the nation in 1800. These chapters have also been criticized Noble Cunningham states flatly, "Adams misjudged the state of the nation in 1800." In striving for literary effect, Cunningham argues, Adams ignored the dynamism and sophistication of the new nation. [9] Such arguments aside, historians have long recognized it as a major and permanent monument of American historiography. It has been called "a neglected masterpiece" by Garry Wills, [10] and "a history yet to be replaced" by the great historian C. Vann Woodward.

In the 1880s, Adams wrote two novels, starting with Democracy, which was published anonymously in 1880 and immediately became popular in literary circles in England and Europe as well as in America. (Only after Adams's death did his publisher reveal his authorship.) His other novel, published under the nom de plume of Frances Snow Compton, was Esther, whose heroine was believed to be modeled after his wife. [11]

During the late 1860s and early 1870s Adams edited, with the assistance of his brother Charles Francis Adams, the major American intellectual-literary journal, The North American Review. During his tenure it published a number of articles exposing corrupt malpractices in finance, corporations and government, anticipating the work of the "muckrakers" by a generation. The brothers collected several of their most important essays in Chapters Of Erie (1871).

In 1884, Adams was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. [12] In 1892, he received the degree LL.D., from Western Reserve University. [3] In 1894, Adams was elected president of the American Historical Association. His address, entitled "The Tendency of History", was delivered in absentia. The essay predicted the development of a scientific approach to history, but was somewhat ambiguous as to what this achievement might mean.

During the 1890s Adams exercised a profound and fruitful influence over the thought and writings of his younger brother Brooks. His own essay, The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma, an offshoot of their decades long conversations and correspondence, was published years later.

Adams was an accomplished poet and in later life a friend of young poets—notably George Cabot Lodge and Trumbull Stickney—but published nothing in his lifetime. His important poems "Buddha and Brahma" and "Prayers to the Virgin and the Dynamo" are included (respectively) in the Library of America's Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Anthologies and a half dozen sonnets, a Troubadour translation and one lyric are scattered through the letters. It is an open and intriguing question whether the Massachusetts Historical Society or other archives preserve more.

In 1904, Adams privately published a copy of his "Mont Saint Michel and Chartres", a pastiche of history, travel, and poetry that celebrated the unity of medieval society, especially as represented in the great cathedrals of France. Originally meant as a diversion for his nieces and "nieces-in-wish", it was publicly released in 1913 at the request of Ralph Adams Cram, an important American architect, and published with support of the American Institute of Architects.

He published The Education of Henry Adams in 1907, in a small private edition for selected friends. Only following Adams's death was The Education made available to the general public, in an edition issued by the Massachusetts Historical Society. It ranked first on the Modern Library's 1998 list of 100 Best Nonfiction Books and was named the best book of the 20th century by the Intercollegiate Studies Institute, a conservative organization that promotes classical education. [13] It was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1919.

Some center-right intellectuals view the book critically. Conservative journalist Fred Siegel considered the worldview expressed therein to be rooted in resentment of America's middle class. "Henry Adams," wrote Siegel, "grounded the intellectual's alienation from American life in the resentment that superior men feel when they are insufficiently appreciated in America's common-man culture." [14] Others view Adams's critique of the commercialism, corruption and pecuniolatry of American mercantile culture as central.

Relations Edit

Siblings Edit

John Quincy Adams II (1833–1894) was a graduate of Harvard (1853), practiced law, and was a Democratic member for several terms of the Massachusetts general court. In 1872, he was nominated for vice president by the Democratic faction that refused to support the nomination of Horace Greeley.

Charles Francis Adams Jr. (1835–1915) fought with the Union in the Civil War, receiving in 1865 the brevet of brigadier general in the regular army. He became an authority on railway management as the author of Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878), and as president of the Union Pacific Railroad from 1884 to 1890. He collaborated with Henry on the editing of The North Atlantic Review and other projects.

Brooks Adams (1848–1927) practiced law and became a writer. His books include The Gold Standard (1894), The Law of Civilization and Decay (1895), America's Economic Supremacy (1900), The New Empire (1902), The Theory of Social Revolutions (1914), and The Emancipation of Massachusetts (1919). Henry's influence on and involvement with his youngest brother's thought and writing was profound and enduring.

Louisa Catherine Adams Kuhn Her brother describes her death in 1870 from tetanus following a carriage accident in Bagni di Lucca in his Chaos Chapter of The Education of Henry Adams. She is buried in Florence's 'English' Cemetery.

Social life and friendships Edit

Adams was a member of an exclusive circle, a group of friends called the "Five of Hearts" that consisted of Henry, his wife Clover, geologist and mountaineer Clarence King, John Hay (assistant to Lincoln and later Secretary of State), and Hay's wife Clara.

One of Adams's frequent travel companions was the artist John La Farge, with whom he journeyed to Japan and the South Seas.

From 1885 until 1888, Theodore Frelinghuysen Dwight (1846–1917), the State Department's chief librarian, lived with Adams at his home at 1603 H Street in Washington, D.C., where he served as Adams's literary assistant, personal secretary, and household manager. Dwight would go on to serve as archivist of the Adams family archives in Quincy, Massachusetts director of the Boston Public Library and U.S. Consul at Vevey, Switzerland.

Marriage to Marian "Clover" Hooper Edit

On June 27, 1872, Adams married Clover Hooper in Beverly, Massachusetts. They spent their honeymoon in Europe, much of it with Charles Milnes Gaskell at Wenlock Abbey, Shropshire. [15] While there, exemplifying the New England civic conscience she and Henry shared, Clover wrote "England is charming for a few families but hopeless for most . Thank the Lord that the American eagle flaps and screams over us." Upon their return, Adams went back to his position at Harvard, and their home at 91 Marlborough Street, Boston, became a gathering place for a lively circle of intellectuals. [16] In 1877, his wife and he moved to Washington, DC, where their home on Lafayette Square, across from the White House, again became a dazzling and witty center of social life. He worked as a journalist and continued working as a historian.

Her suicide Edit

On Sunday morning, December 6, 1885, after a late breakfast at their home, 1607 H Street on Lafayette Square, Clover Hooper Adams went to her room. Henry, troubled by a toothache, had planned to see his dentist. While departing his home, he was met by a woman calling to see his wife. Adams went upstairs to her room to ask if she would receive the visitor and found his wife lying on a rug before the fire an opened vial of potassium cyanide, which Clover had frequently used in processing photographs, lay nearby. Adams carried his wife to a sofa, then ran for a doctor. Shortly thereafter, Dr. Charles E. Hagner pronounced Clover dead. [17]

Much speculation and numerous theories have been given concerning the causes of Clover Adams's suicide. Her death has been attributed to depression over her father's death. [18] Her suicide was also related to a family history of mental depression and suicide, a sense of frustration and lack of fulfillment as a cultured person and as a woman, and a feeling of intellectual inferiority over her husband's interest in and attention to another woman. The possibility of determining the validity of any or all of these causes was made more difficult by Henry Adams's destruction of most of Clover's letters and photos following her death. [19] His autobiography maintains a profound silence about his wife after her suicide. Adams's grief was profound and enduring. The event was life-shattering for Adams and profoundly altered the course of his life.

Henry, his brother, Charles Francis Adams, Clover's brother Edward, and her sister Ellen, with her husband Ephraim Gurney, were the attendees at a brief funeral service held on December 9, 1885, at the house on Lafayette Square. Interment services followed at Rock Creek Cemetery, but the actual burial was postponed until December 11, 1885, because of the inclement weather. [20] A few weeks later, Adams ordered a modest headstone as a temporary marker. [21] Later he commissioned a monument for her tomb from his friend, the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who created a masterpiece for her memorial.

Relationship with Elizabeth Sherman Cameron Edit

Henry Adams first met Elizabeth Cameron in January 1881 at a reception in the drawing room of the house of John and Clara Hay. [22] Elizabeth was considered to be one of the most beautiful and intelligent women in the Washington area. Elizabeth had grown up as Lizzie Sherman, the daughter of Judge Charles Sherman of Ohio, the niece of Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman in Hayes's cabinet and the niece of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Her family had pressured Lizzie into a loveless marriage, but brokered a prenuptial agreement with Senator J. Donald Cameron which provided her with the income from $160,000 worth of securities, a very large amount in 1878, equivalent to about $3,970,000 worth in 2017. [23] The arranged marriage on May 9, 1878, united the reluctant 20-year-old beauty with a 44-year-old widower with six children. Eliza, his eldest, who had served as her father's hostess, was now displaced by a stepmother the same age. The children never accepted her. The marriage was further strained by the Senator's coarseness and indifference and his fondness for bourbon and the world of political corruption he inhabited, which is reflected in Adams's novel Democracy.

Henry Adams initiated a correspondence with Lizzie on May 19, 1883, when her husband and she departed for Europe. That letter reflected his unhappiness with her departure and his longing for her return. [24] It was the first of hundreds to follow for the next 35 years, recording a passionate yet unconsummated relationship. On December 7, 1884, one year before Clover's suicide, Henry Adams wrote to Lizzie, "I shall dedicate my next poem to you. I shall have you carved over the arch of my stone doorway. I shall publish your volume of extracts with your portrait on the title page. None of these methods can fully express the extent to which I am yours." [25]

Adams's wife, Clover, who had written a weekly letter to her father throughout her marriage except for the brief hiatus during her breakdown along the Nile, never mentioned concerns or suspicions about Henry's relationship with Lizzie. Nothing in the letters of her family or circle of friends indicates her distrust or unhappiness with her husband in this matter. Indeed, after her death, Henry found a letter from Clover to her sister Ellen which had not been posted. The survival of this letter was assured by its contents which read, "If I had one single point of character or goodness, I would stand on that and grow back to life. Henry is more patient and loving than words can express—God might envy him— he bears and hopes and despairs hour after hour—Henry is beyond all words tenderer and better than all of you even." [26]

On Christmas Day 1885, Adams sent one of Clover's favorite pieces of jewelry to Cameron, requesting that she "sometimes wear it, to remind you of her." [27]

Just before the end of 1885, Adams moved into his newly completed mansion next door at 1603 H Street designed by his old friend, Henry Hobson Richardson, one of the most prominent architects of his day. [27]

Following his wife's death, Adams took up a restless life as a globetrotter, traveling extensively, spending summers in Paris and winters in Washington, where he commissioned the Adams Memorial, designed by sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and architect Stanford White for her grave site in Rock Creek Cemetery.

In 1912, Adams suffered a stroke, perhaps brought on by news of the sinking of the Titanic, for which he had return tickets to Europe. After the stroke, his scholarly output diminished, but he continued to travel, write letters, and host dignitaries and friends at his Washington, DC, home.

In the first volume of her autobiography Eleanor Roosevelt offers this vignette of Adams in old age:

"Occasionally we received one of the much-coveted invitations to lunch or dine at his house. My first picture of this supposedly stern, rather biting Mr. Adams is of an old gentleman in a victoria outside of our house on N Street. [His secretary] Aileen Tone and I were having tea inside, but Mr. Adams never paid calls. He did, however, request that the children of the house come out and join him in the victoria . and they brought their Scottie dog and sat and chatted and played all over the vehicle. No one was ever able thereafter to persuade me that Mr. Adams was quite the cynic he was supposed to be. One day after lunch with him, my husband [the future President] mentioned something which at the time was causing him deep concern in the Government, and Mr. Adams looked at him rather fiercely and said: 'Young man, I have lived in this house many years and seen the occupants of that White House across the square come and go, and nothing that you minor officials or the occupant of that house can do will affect the history of the world for long!' . Henry Adams loved to shock his hearers, and I think he knew that those who were worth their salt would understand him and pick out of the knowledge which flowed from his lips the things which might be useful, and discard the cynicism as an old man's defense against his own urge to be [still] an active factor in the work of the world."

Henry Adams died at age 80 in Washington, DC. on March 27, 1918. He is interred beside his wife in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC. [28]

Anglo-Saxonism Edit

Considered a prominent Anglo-Saxonist of particularly the nineteenth-century, Adams has been portrayed by modern historians as anxious about the immigration of the era into the United States, particularly from Eastern Europe. [29] More starkly put, Adams also wrote of his belief that "the dark races are gaining on us". [30] He considered the U.S. Constitution itself as belonging to the Anglo-Saxon "race", and as an expression of "Germanic freedom". [31] He went so far as to criticize fellow scholars for not being absolute enough in their Anglo-Saxonism, such as William Stubbs, whom he criticized for downplaying the significance, as he saw it, of "Germanic law" or hundred law in its contribution to English common law. [32]

Adams was nevertheless highly critical of the English. He referred to them as a "besotted race" from whom nothing good could come and "wanted nothing so much as to wipe England off the earth." [33]

Antisemitism Edit

Adams's attitude towards Jews has been described as one of loathing. John Hay said that when Adams "saw Vesuvius reddening . [he] searched for a Jew stoking the fire." [34]

Adams wrote: "I detest [the Jews], and everything connected with them, and I live only and solely with the hope of seeing their demise, with all their accursed Judaism. I want to see all the lenders at interest taken out and executed." [35] To one friend, he wrote: "Bombard New York. I know no place that would be more improved by it. The chief population is Jew, and the rest is German Jew." [36]

His letters were "peppered with a variety of antisemitic remarks", according to historian Robert Michael, as in the following citations from historian Edward Saveth:

"We are in the hands of the Jews", Adams lamented. "They can do what they please with our values." He advised against investment except in the form of gold locked in a safe deposit box. "There you have no risk but the burglar. In any other form you have the burglar, the Jew, the Czar, the socialist, and, above all, the total irremediable, radical rottenness of our whole social, industrial, financial and political system." [37]

Edward Chalfant's definitive three-volume biography of Adams includes an exhaustive, well-documented examination of Adams's "antisemitism" in its second volume, Improvement of the World. [38] He shows that most of the time when Adams says "Jews" he means "financiers." This accords with the historical English usage referenced by the second definition under the Oxford English Dictionary entry, a usage that was common in Adams's time and social milieu. It also accords with Adams's frequent laments that "the eighteenth-century fabric of a priori, or moral, principles" had been replaced with "a bankers' world" and that the "banking mind was obnoxious". [39]

Adams esteemed individual Jewish personages. In the "Dilettantism" chapter of The Education of Henry Adams he wrote of historian Francis Palgrave that "the reason of his superiority lay in his name, which was Cohen, and his mind which was Cohen also". (Palgrave, the son of a Jewish stockbroker, had changed his name from Cohen upon marriage.) In the "Political Morality" chapter of the same volume he praises the Jewish statesman Benjamin Disraeli over the Gentiles Palmerston, Russell and Gladstone, writing: "Complex these gentlemen were not. Disraeli alone might, by contrast, be called complex." [40]

Historical entropy Edit

In 1910, Adams printed and distributed to university libraries and history professors the small volume A Letter to American Teachers of History proposing a "theory of history" based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of entropy. [41] [42] This, essentially, states that all energy dissipates, order becomes disorder, and the earth will eventually become uninhabitable. In short, he applied the physics of dynamical systems of Rudolf Clausius, Hermann von Helmholtz, and William Thomson to the modeling of human history.

In his 1909 manuscript The Rule of Phase Applied to History, Adams attempted to use Maxwell's demon as a historical metaphor, though he seems to have misunderstood and misapplied the principle. [43] Adams interpreted history as a process moving towards "equilibrium", but he saw militaristic nations (he felt Germany pre-eminent in this class) as tending to reverse this process, a "Maxwell's Demon of history."

Adams made many attempts to respond to the criticism of his formulation from his scientific colleagues, but the work remained incomplete at Adams's death in 1918. It was published posthumously. [44]

Robert E. Lee Edit

Adams said, "I think that Lee should have been hanged. It was all the worse that he was a good man and a fine character and acted conscientiously. It's always the good men who do the most harm in the world." [45]

The Virgin Mary Edit

For Adams, the Virgin Mary was a symbol of the best of the Old World, as the dynamo was a representative of modernity. [ citation needed ]


Nathaniel Hawthorne/Adverts

Biographies of Men famous in the Political History of the United States. Edited by JOHN T. MORSE, JR.

Separately they are interesting and entertaining biographies of our most eminent public men as a series they are especially remarkable as constituting a history of American politics and policies more complete and more useful for instruction and reference than any that I am aware of.—HON. JOHN W. GRIGGS-United States Attorney-General.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. By JOHN T. MORSE, JR.
SAMUEL ADAMS. By JAMES K. HOSMER.
PATRICK HENRY. By MOSES COIT TYLER.
GEORGE WASHINGTON. By HENRY CABOT LODGE- 2 volumes.
JOHN ADAMS. By JOHN T. MORSE, JR.
ALEXANDER HAMILTON. By HENRY CABOT LODGE.
GOUVERNEUR MORRIS. By THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
JOHN JAY. By GEORGE PELLEW.
JOHN MARSHALL. By ALLAN B. MAGRUDER.
THOMAS JEFFERSON. By JOHN T. MORSE, JR.
JAMES MADISON. By SYDNEY HOWARD GAY.
ALBERT GALLATIN. By JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS.
JAMES MONROE. By D. C. GILMAN.
OHN OUINCY ADAMS. By JOHN T. MORSE, JR.
OHN RANDOLPH. By HENRY ADAMS.
ANDREW JACKSON. By W. G. SUMNER.
MARTIN VAN BUREN. By EDWARD W. SHEPARD.
HENRY CLAY. By CARL SCHURZ. 2 volumes.
DANIEL WEBSTER. By HENRY CABOT LODGE.
JOHN C. CALHOUN. By DR. H. VON HOLST.
THOMAS H. BENTON. By THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
LEWIS CASS. By ANDREW C. MCLAUGHLIN.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. By JOHN T. MORSE, JR. 2 volumes.
WILLIAM H. SEWARD. By THORNTON K. LOTHROF.
SALMON P. CHASE. By ALBERT BUSHNELL HART.
CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS. By C. F. ADAMS, JR.
CHARLES SUMNER. By MOORFIELD STOREY.
THADDEUS STEVENS. By SAMUEL W. McCALL,

Biographies of men particularly influential in the recent Political History of the Nation.

This second series is intended to supplement the original list of American Statesmen by the addition of the names of men who have helped to make the history of the United States since the Civil War.

JAMES G. BLAINE. By EDWARD STANWOOD.
JOHN SHERMAN. By THEODORE E. BURTON.
ULYSSES S. GRANT. By SAMUEL W. McCALL. In preparation.

Other interesting additions to the list to be made in the future.

Volumes devoted to such States of the Union as have a striking political, social, or economic history.

The books which form this series are scholarly and readable individually: collectvely, the series, when completed, will present a history of the nation, setting forth in lucid and vigorous style the varieties of government and of social life to be found in the various commonwealths included in the federal union.

CALIFORNIA. By JOSIAH ROYCE.
CONNECTICUT. By ALEXANDER JOHNSTON. (Revised Ed.)
INDIANA. By J. P. DUNN, JR. (Revised Edition.)
KANSAS. By LEVERETT W. SPRING. (Revised Edition.)
KENTUCKY. By NATHANIEL SOUTHGATE SHALER.
LOUISIANA. By ALBERT PHELPS.
MARYLAND. By WILLIAM HAND BROWNE. (Revised E4
MICHIGAN. By THOMAS M. COOLEY. (Revised Edition.)
MINNESOTA. By WM. W. FOLWELL.
MISSOURI. By LUCIEN CARR.
NEW HAMPSHIRE. By FRANK B. SANBORN.
NEW YORK. By ELLIS H. ROBERTS. 2 vols. (Revised Ed.)
OHIO. By RUFUS KING. (Revised Edition.)
RHODE ISLAND. By IRVING B. RICHMAN.
TEXAS. By GEORGE P. GARRISON.
VERMONT. By ROWLAND E. ROBINSON.
VIRGINIA. By JOHN ESTEN COOKE. (Revised Edition.)
WISCONSIN. By REUBEN GOLD THWAITES.

GEORGIA. By ULRICH B. PHILLIPS.
ILLINOIS. By JOHN H. FINLEY.
IOWA. By ALBERT SHAW.
MASSACHUSETTS. By EDWARD CHANNING.
NEW JERSEY. By AUSTIN SCOTT.
OREGON. By F. H. HODDER.
PENNSYLVANIA. By TALCOTT WILLIAMS,

Biographies of our most eminent American Authors, written by men who are themselves prominent in the field of letters.

The writers of these biographies are themselves Americans, generally familiar with the surroundings in which their subjects lived and the conditions under which their work was done. Hence the volumes are peculiar for the rare combination of critical judgment with sympathetic understanding. Collectively, the series offers a biographical history of American Literature.

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT. By JOHN BIGELOW.
J. FENIMORE COOPER. By T. R. LOUNSBURY.
GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS. By EDWARD GARY.
RALPH WALDO EMERSON. By OLIVER WENDELL HOLME*,
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. By JOHN BACH McMASTER.
NATHANIEL HAWl HORNE. By GEORGE E. WOODBERRY.
WASHINGTON IRVING. By CHARLKS DUDLEY WARNER.
SIDNEY LAMER. By EDWIN MIMS.
HENRY W. LONGFELLOW, By T W. HIGGINSON.
JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. B 5 FERRI* GREFNSLET.
MARGARET FULLER OSSOLL By T. W. HIGGINSON.
FRANCIS PARKMAN. By H. D. SEDGWICK.
EDGAR ALLAN POE. By GEORGE E. WOODBERRY.
WILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT. By ROLLO OGDEN.
GEORGE RIPLEY. By O. B. FROTHINGHAM.
WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS. By WILLIAM P. TRENT.
BAYARD TAYLOR. By ALBERT H. SMYTH.
HENRY D. THOREAU. By FRANK B. SANBORN.
NOAH WEBSTER. By HORACE E. SCUDDER.
WALT WHITMAN. By BLISS PERRY.
JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER. By GEO. R. CARPENTER
NATHANIEL PARKER WILLIS. By HENRY A. BEERS.


February 12, 2020
Ray LaHood
Chairman of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum Board of Directors

February 12, 2019
Dan Abrams
Author and Television Journalist

February 12, 2018
Richard Carwardine
Oxford University

February 12, 2017
Bruce Rauner
Governor of Illinois

February 12, 2016
Dr. Bernice King
Director of the King Center

February 12, 2015
Fred Morsell
Presenting Frederick Douglass

February 12, 2014
Thomas Schwartz
Director, Herbert Hoover National Historic Site

February 12, 2013
Brooks D. Simpson
Author, Professor University of Arizona

February 12, 2012
Richard Durbin
United States Senator

February 11, 2011
Allen C. Guelzo
Author, Professor Gettysburg College

February 12, 2010
Harold Holzer
Author

February 12, 2009
President Barack Obama
President of the United States of America

Michael Burlingame
Author, Professor, University of Illinois Springfield


February 12, 2008
Michael Beschloss
Author

February 12, 2007
John Meacham
Author, Editor, Newsweek

February 12, 2006
Doris Kearns Goodwin
Author

February 12, 2005
Mark A. Plummer
Professor, Illinois State University

February 12, 2004
Martin Marty
Professor, University of Chicago

February 12, 2003
Admiral William J. Crowe, Jr.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

February 12, 2002
Allen C. Guelzo
Professor of History, Eastern College

February 12, 2001
Michael Beschloss
Author

February 12, 2000
Doris Kearns Goodwin
Author

February 12, 1999
James B. Stewart
Author

February 12, 1998
James Fallows
Editor, U.S. News and World Report

February 12, 1997
Paul Simon
United States Senator from Illinois
Lincoln and Lovejoy

February 12, 1996
Some Folks
19th Century musical entertainment of the Lincoln period

February 12, 1995
Brian Lamb
CEO, C-SPAN

February 12, 1994
Sam Waterston
Actor

February 12, 1993
Garry Wills
Historian, Northwestern University
Lincoln and Leadership

February 12, 1992
Jack Kemp
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

February 12, 1991
Tom Wicker
Journalist, New York Times

February 12, 1990
Mortimer Jerome Adler
Philosopher, University of Chicago
Lincoln’s Declaration

February 12, 1989
Paul Simon
United States Senator from Illinois

February 12, 1988
Entertainment, no speaker

February 12, 1987
James R. Thompson
Governor of Illinois
Lincoln and the Young Men’s Lyceum Address 150 Years Later

February 12, 1986
Mario M. Cuomo
Governor of New York
Abraham Lincoln and Our ‘Unfinished Work’

February 12, 1985
John Hope Franklin
Professor of History, University of Illinois, Chicago
The Use and Misuse of the Lincoln Legacy

February 12, 1984
Mark O. Hatfield
United States Senator from Oregon
The Oregon Connection of Abraham Lincoln

February 12, 1983
William Safire
Columnist, New York Times
Lincoln’s Pundits: If Today’s Columnists Were Writing in Lincoln’s Time

February 12, 1982

Don E. Fehrenbacher
Professor of History, Stanford University
The Anti-Lincoln Tradition (Delivered on audio tape)

February 12, 1981
William Hedgcock Webster
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

February 12, 1980
Mary Frances Berry
United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare
Lincoln and Civil Rights for Blacks

February 12, 1979
William Hedgcock Webster
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

February 12, 1978
Harold M. Hyman
Professor of History, Rice University
With Malice Toward Some: Scholarship or Something Less on the Lincoln Murder?

February 12, 1977
Roy P. Basler
Library of Congress
President Lincoln Helps His Old Friends

February 12, 1976
Francis Aungier Pakenham
Earl of Longford (British MP)
Lincoln and Kennedy

February 12, 1975
Herbert Mitgang
Editor, New York Times
The Character of Abraham Lincoln

February 12, 1974
D. Elton Trueblood
Earlham College
The Spiritual Pilgrimage of Abraham Lincoln

February 12, 1973
Irving Stone
Author
Mary Lincoln-The Final Judgment

February 12, 1972
T. Harry Williams
Professor of History, Louisiana State University
Lincoln and Davis as War Leaders

February 11, 1971
Wayne Aspinwall
United States Representative from Colorado
Lincoln’s Life and Character

February 12, 1970
Bruce Catton
Author
The Inescapable Challenge Lincoln Left Us

February 12, 1969
Nelson A. Rockefeller
Governor of New York

February 12, 1968
Ramsey Clark
United States Attorney General

February 12, 1967
Everett M. Dirksen
United States Senator from Illinois
Lincoln Had A Cause

February 12, 1966
William W. Scranton
Governor of Pennsylvania
Lincoln of Springfield

February 12, 1965
LeRoy Collins
Director of Community Service, United States Department of Commerce
If Lincoln Could Have Talked That Day

February 12, 1964
Adlai E. Stevenson
United States Ambassador to the United Nations
1953-1963 No banquets held

February 12, 1952
Allan Nevins
Columbia University
Part of the National Wealth

T. V. Smith
Maxwell School, Syracuse University
Lincoln: Public and Private

Adlai E. Stevenson
Governor of Illinois
Lincoln as a Political Leader

February 12, 1951
James Garfield Randall
Professor of History, University of Illinois
Lincoln and the Governance of Men

February 13, 1950
David C. Mearns
Assistant Librarian of Congress
Our Reluctant Contemporary: Abraham Lincoln

February 12, 1949
Dumas Malone
Professor of History, Columbia University
Jefferson and Lincoln

February 12, 1948
Lloyd Lewis
Lincoln’s Legacy to Grant

February 12, 1947
Avery O. Craven
Professor of History, University of Chicago
The Civil War and the Democratic Process

February 12, 1946
Edgar Curtis Taylor
Headmaster, Taylor School, Clayton, Missouri
Lincoln the Internationalist

February 12, 1945
Stanley Pargellis
Librarian, Newberry Library, Chicago Illinois
Lincoln’s Political Philosophy

February 12, 1944
D. Graham Hutton
Director, British Information Services, Chicago
Lincoln Through British Eyes

February 12, 1943
Benjamin P. Thomas
Harry E. Pratt, and Paul M. Angle, Abraham Lincoln Association: Past, Present, Future

February 12, 1942
F. Lauriston Bullard
Editorial writer, Boston Herald
Lincoln’s ‘Conquest’ of New England

February 12, 1941
Charles W. Gilkey
Dean, University of Chicago Chapel
Lincoln’s Philosophy of Life

February 12, 1940

William Allen White
Editor, Emporia Gazette
We Are Coming Father Abraham!

February 11, 1939
James Weber Linn
Professor of English, University of Chicago
Such Were His Words

J.V. Moldedhawer
Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, New York
The Lincoln of the Second Inaugural

February 12, 1938
John McAuley Palmer
Brig. Gen. United States Army, Retired
Abraham Lincoln
Evan A. Evans
United States Circuit Court of Appeals, Chicago
‘Let Us Have Faith That Right Makes Might’

February 12, 1937
Harold C. Jaquith
President, Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois
The Persistent Personality of Lincoln

Charles Nagel
St. Louis, Missouri
My Recollections of Lincoln

February 12,1936
Andrew C. McLaughlin
Professor Emeritus, University of Chicago
Lincoln, the Constitution and Democracy
T.V. Smith
Professor of Philosophy, University of Chicago
A Philosopher Looks at Lincoln

February 12, 1935
Tyler Dennet
President, Williams College, Massachusetts
Lincoln and the Campaign of 1864
Benjamin P. Thomas
Executive Secretary, Abraham Lincoln Association
Lincoln’s Humor: An Analysis

February 12, 1934
Frederic L. Paxson
Professor of History, University of California
The Promise of the First Republican Administration: Abraham Lincoln, 1860

February 13, 1933
Joseph Fort Newton
Rector St. James’ Protestant Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
The Spiritual Life of Lincoln: An Interpretation

February 12, 1932
John Maxcy Zane
Lincoln, the Constitutional Lawyer

Louis A. Warren
Lincoln National Life Company, Fort Wayne, Indiana
The Environs of Lincoln’s Youth

February 12, 1931
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln’s Genius of Places

Henry Horner
Judge, Probate Court, Cook County, Illinois
The Universality of Lincoln

February 12,1930
John Callan O’Laughlin
Editor-in-Chief, Copley Press, Washington, D.C.
Lincoln and the Press (read by A.W. Shipton of the Illinois State Journal)

Allan Nevins
Professor of History, Columbia University
Lincoln’s Plans for Reunion

February 12, 1929
Mary E. Humphrey
Springfield, Illinois
Springfield of the Lincolns
Claude G. Bowers
Editorial writer, New York Evening World
Lincoln and Douglas

February 12, 1928
Paul M. Angle
Executive Secretary, Lincoln Centennial Association
Abraham Lincoln: Circuit Lawyer

Arthur Charles Cole
Professor of History, University of Wisconsin
Abraham Lincoln and the South

February 12, 1927
Paul M. Angle
Executive Secretary, Lincoln Centennial Association
Where Lincoln Practiced Law
William E. Dodd
Professor of History, University of Chicago
Lincoln’s Last Struggle–Victor

February 12, 1926
Paul M. Angle
Executive Secretary, Lincoln Centennial Association
The Building of the Lincoln Monument
Michael Pupin
Professor of Electro-Mechanics, Columbia University
The Revelation of Lincoln to a Serbian Immigrant

February 12, 1925
A. L. Bowen
A. Lincoln: His House


John H. Finley
Editor, New York Times
The Education of Abraham Lincoln

February 12, 1924
Henry A. Converse
The House of the House Divided

Andrew C. McLaughlin
Professor of History, University of Chicago
Lincoln as a World Figure

February 12, 1923
Brig. Gen. Ronald Storrs
British Civil Governor of Jerusalem
The Esteem in Which Lincoln is Held in the Near East


John H. Walker
President, Illinois State Federation of Labor
Lincoln, Friend of the Common People

Frank O. Lowden
formerly Governor of Illinois
Lincoln, the American
1922 No meeting or banquet held

February 12, 1921
William C. Sproul
Governor of Pennsylvania
Lincoln and the Present World Outlook

Don Frederico A. Pezet
Peruvian Ambassador to the United States
Lincoln as Viewed by Latin America Today
1920 No meeting or banquet held

February 12, 1919
Clinton L. Conkling
Lincoln in His Home Town

February 12, 1918
William Renwick Riddell
Justice, Supreme Court of Ontario
Abraham Lincoln

Thomas Power O’Connor
Member of Parliament from Ireland

Addison G. Proctor
Youngest Delegate to the Republican Convention of 1860 of Kansas
The Nomination of Lincoln

Hugh S. Magill, Jr.
Director, Illinois Centennial Celebration

February 12, 1917
John Grier Hibben
President, Princeton University
The Spirit of Lincoln in the Present World Crisis

Thomas Sterling
United States Senator from South Dakota
Lincoln, the Man and His Great Achievement

February 12, 1916
James Hamilton Lewis
United States Senator from Illinois
Lincoln: The Fulfillment of Prophecy

Lawrence Y. Sherman
United States Senator from Illinois
Lincoln and the Commonplace

William A. Quayle
Bishop, Methodist Episcopal Church
Lincoln and Tomorrow

February 12, 1915
Archbishop Glennon
Abraham Lincoln the Man and the Democrat

Gutzon Borglum
Sculptor, New York
The Beauty of Lincoln and His Place in Art

Samuel Fallows
Bishop, Reformed Episcopal Church Department Commander, Illinois Grand Army of the Republic
Lincoln the Height of America

February 12, 1914
Joseph T. Robinson
United States Senator from Arkansas
Mr. Lincoln’s Title to Enduring Fame. A Tribute from the South

Percival G. Rennick
Peoria, Illinois
Lincoln: The Kindliest Memory of the Land

Dr. Stephen S. Wise,
Lincoln: Man and American

February 12, 1913
Count J. Von Bernstorff
German Ambassador to the United States
Lincoln as Germany Regarded Him

Joseph W. Bailey
United State Senator from Texas
If Lincoln Lived in This Day

February 12, 1912
Henry Cabot Lodge
United States Senator from Massachusetts
Abraham Lincoln and the Constitution

Frank B. Willis
United States Representative from Ohio
Abraham Lincoln: The Man

February 11, 1911
William Howard Taft
President of United States
Abraham Lincoln

Martin W. Littleton
The Two Great Leaders

February 12, 1910
Booker T. Washington
Tuskegee Institute
Some Results of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation

February 12, 1909
J. J. Jusserand
French Ambassador to the United States
Abraham Lincoln as France Regarded Him

William Jennings Bryan
The Royal Art of Government

James Bryce
British Ambassador to the United States
Some Reflections on the Character and Career of Mr. Lincoln

Jonathan P. Dolliver
United State Senator from Iowa
Our Heroic Age


9 cemeteries that are perfect for a quiet walk this spring

Looking for somewhere to take a contemplative walk and a break from today&rsquos uncertain times? By design, many cemeteries &ndash particularly the rural or garden variety which gradually replaced churchyard burying grounds over the course of the 19th century &ndash afford peace and quiet, and the opportunity for reflection.

Today, with their paved roads and walkways, cemeteries &ndash some flat and others with hills &ndash are ideal for walking.

And while they offer solitude, even on the quietest of days you&rsquoll rarely be entirely alone. Cemeteries are home to birds and other animals &ndash squirrels and rabbits, the occasional deer or turkey, or, if there is a nearby pond or stream, perhaps geese, turtles, even a swan or two.

As you stroll, you will inevitably wonder about the lives of the people whose names are carved on the gravestones and monuments you pass along the way. If you&rsquore in or near your hometown, some of the names will undoubtedly be familiar and conjure up memories of people you&rsquove known.

All the while, you can take in the landscape architecture that provides the setting for the often intricately designed granite, greenstone, limestone, slate and marble tombstones and family mausoleums that surround you.

For history buffs, avid readers, followers of politics, and fans of the arts, cemeteries throughout Massachusetts offer the opportunity to visit the final resting places of some of America&rsquos best-known figures.

There are beautiful and historic cemeteries throughout the Commonwealth. In and around Boston, here are some to consider:

King's Chapel Burying Ground, 58 Tremont St., Boston

John Winthrop, Massachusetts&rsquo first governor, and Mary Chilton, the first woman to step off the Mayflower, are among those buried in King&rsquos Chapel Burying Ground in downtown Boston. Established in 1630, this is one of the three oldest cemeteries in Boston, along with Phipps Street Burying Ground in Charlestown and Roxbury&rsquos Eliot Burying Ground.

Granary Burying Ground, Tremont Street between Park and School streets, Boston

Adjacent to Park Street Church and just steps from Boston Common, the Granary is home to the remains of thousands of Boston citizens, including Massachusetts governors, mayors, clergymen, three signers of the Declaration of Independence &ndash Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and Robert Treat Paine &ndash and patriot, craftsman, and famed midnight rider Paul Revere. Near the center of the burying ground, a 25-foot-tall obelisk sits atop the tomb of Benjamin Franklin's parents.

Mount Auburn Cemetery, 580 Mount Auburn St., Cambridge

Mount Auburn is the first rural, or garden, cemetery in the United States. Dedicated in 1831, Mount Auburn&rsquos rolling hills, landscaped grounds, and classical monuments, combined with its use of the term &ldquocemetery&rdquo &ndash from the Greek for sleeping place &ndash marked the shift away from the Colonial-era tradition of church-affiliated burying grounds.

Among those buried here are actor Edwin Booth, cookbook author Fannie Farmer, Church of Christ, Scientist founder Mary Baker Eddy, artist Winslow Homer, poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, politicians Henry Cabot Lodge and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., philosopher John Rawls, actress Anne Revere, historian and presidential speechwriter Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., psychologist Abraham Maslow, and sculptor Anne Whitney, buried alongside her companion Abby Adeline Manning.

Forest Hills Cemetery, 99 Forest Hills Ave., Boston

Forest Hills is a rural garden cemetery, sculpture garden, and public park with horticultural features designed by its founder A.S. Dearborn in the mid-1800s. Notables buried here include playwright and Nobel Laureate Eugene O'Neill (&ldquoLong Day&rsquos Journey into Night&rdquo) poets e.e. cummings and Anne Sexton, National Center for Afro-American Arts founder Elma Lewis, Boston Celtics player Reggie Lewis, suffragist and abolitionist Lucy Stone, philanthropist and co-founder of Boston&rsquos North Bennet Street School Pauline Agassiz Shaw, and abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison.

St. Joseph&rsquos Cemetery, 990 Lagrange St., West Roxbury

A veritable history of 20th-century Boston politics rests here as former Boston mayors John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, John B. Hynes, John F. Collins, and Kevin H. White are all buried at St. Joseph&rsquos, along with legendary Boston Pops conductor Arthur Fiedler and notorious crime figure James &ldquoWhitey&rdquo Bulger.

Holyhood Cemetery, 584 Heath St., Brookline

Among those buried at Holyhood are professional baseball player George Wright, Irish poet and journalist John Boyle O&rsquoReilly, and Ambassador and Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy along with other members of their family, including their daughter Rosemary Kennedy and their grandchildren David and Michael, sons of Robert and Ethel Kennedy, and Kara, daughter of Edward and Joan Kennedy.

Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Bedford St., Concord

A rural cemetery, Sleepy Hollow &ndash with its famed Author&rsquos Ridge &ndash is the burial site of some of America&rsquos best-known writers and thinkers including Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, and more. Also buried at Sleepy Hollow are Lincoln Memorial sculptor Daniel Chester French, and television director Marc Daniels, who directed the first 38 episodes of &ldquoI Love Lucy,&rdquo 15 episodes of &ldquoStar Trek&rdquo and many other shows.

Sharon Memorial Park, 120 Canton St., Sharon

Serving the Jewish community and established in 1948, the same year as the formation of Israel, Sharon Memorial Park is the final resting place of billionaire media mogul Sumner Redstone, who passed away Aug. 11 at age 97. Also interred here are Dr. Melvin Glimcher, a leader in the development of artificial limbs and grandfather of current 4th District Congressional candidate Jake Auchincloss, and AIDS activist Elizabeth Glaser, co-founder of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation.

Milton Cemetery, 211 Centre St., Milton

Established in 1672 as a burying ground, Milton Cemetery added a &ldquonew&rdquo section, in the rural cemetery style, in 1854, and expanded further with a &ldquomodern section&rdquo in 1945. Among those interred here are Howard Johnson&rsquos restaurant and hotel chain founder Howard Deering Johnson, abolitionist Wendell Phillips, American Impressionist painter Dennis Miller Bunker, and actor and vaudevillian Nathaniel &ldquoNat&rdquo Goodwin.

Two topiary elephants gently grace the grounds of Milton Cemetery, in the shade of mature trees. Elephants are known to have long memories. They also often linger with their dead, standing by the body of a deceased elephant for hours and even later returning to the site.


Watch the video: We Now Understand Why Frank Is No Longer On American Pickers (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Lawler

    This theme is simply incomparable

  2. Kakus

    To tell the truth, at first I didn't quite understand it, but after rereading it a second time I got it - thanks!



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