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Jennifer Joanna Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an American actress, producer, and businesswoman. The daughter of actors John Aniston and Nancy Dow, she began working as an actress at an early age with an uncredited role in the 1988 film Mac and Me her first major film role came in the 1993 horror comedy Leprechaun. Since her career progressed in the 1990s, Aniston has become one of the world's highest-paid actresses. Films with Aniston in the leading role have grossed over $1.6 billion worldwide with 12 of those earning at least $100 million at the box office. 
Aniston rose to international fame for her role as Rachel Green on the television sitcom Friends (1994–2004), for which she earned Primetime Emmy, Golden Globe, and Screen Actors Guild awards. Her character became widely popular and is regarded as one of the greatest female characters in television history. Aniston has since played starring roles in numerous dramas, comedies and romantic comedies. Her biggest box office successes include Bruce Almighty (2003), The Break-Up (2006), Marley & Me (2008), Just Go with It (2011), Horrible Bosses (2011), and We're the Millers (2013), each of which grossed over $200 million in worldwide box office receipts. Some of her most critically acclaimed film roles include Office Space (1999), The Good Girl (2002), Friends with Money (2006), Cake (2014), and Dumplin' (2018). She returned to television in 2019, producing and starring in the Apple TV+ drama series The Morning Show, for which she won another Screen Actors Guild Award.
Aniston has been included in numerous magazines' lists of the world's most beautiful women. Her net worth is estimated to be $300 million. She is the recipient of a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and is the co-founder of the production company Echo Films, established in 2008. Aniston has been married twice, first to actor Brad Pitt, to whom she was married for five years, and later to actor Justin Theroux, whom she married in 2015 and later separated from in 2017.
St. Genevieve was a fair and courageous peasant girl who was born around 422 in Nanterre, France, to a man named Severus and a woman named Gerontia.
When Genevieve was only seven-years-old, St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre visited Nanterre on his way to Britain. While he was there, many people flocked to receive his blessing. The young Genevieve stood amid a crowd which had gathered around the man of God who singled her out and foretold her future sanctity. At her request, the holy Bishop led her to a church, accompanied by all the faithful, and consecrated her to God as a virgin.
The next day, Germanus asked Genevieve if she had remembered the promise she made to God. She did and proclaimed she would always fulfill it faithfully. He presented her with a cross engraved brass medal to always wear around her neck, as a reminder of the consecration she made of herself to God. He ordered her to never wear any other bracelets, necklaces or jewelry, to avoid falling into vanity.
Encouraged by Germanus, Genevieve dedicated her life to prayer, practices of devotion and a acts of penance. When she was only 15-years-old, she met with the Bishop of Paris and asked to become a nun. From this moment, she also began praying continuously and fasting, eating only twice a week, as a sign of her complete dedication to the Lord.
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Following the death of her parents, Genevieve went on to live with her grandmother in Paris and traveled, sharing the faith, performing acts of charity, praying for the sick and prophesying. Her dedicated Christian way of life was filled with the signs of the Holy Spirit working through her.
The signs of the working of the Holy Spirit accompanying this holy young woman included miracles and spiritually inspired predictions. She frequently had visions of heavenly angels and saints. However, when she shared those visions and experiences of the Lord, people began to turn against her. They called her a hypocrite and accused her of being a false visionary. In fact, they were determined to drown her in a lake of fire. However, the Bishop Germanus intervened and silenced those who were accusing her of false statements, and persecuting her.
Genevieve was appointed by the Bishop to look after the welfare of the consecrated virgins. She did so faithfully and helped to lead them into a greater degree of holiness as they grew closer to the Lord Jesus.
Genevieve had a great influence over Childeric, the King of Gaul who overtook Paris. During a time when Paris suffered with great famine, Genevieve traveled by boat to Troyes and brought back several boats full of corn. Although he was a pagan, Childeric respected her and spared the lives of several prisoners on her behalf.
She also had an effect on King Clovis. He listened to her advice and under her request, he granted freedom to several of his prisoners.
When Attila and his army of Huns came upon Paris, the Parisian Christians were prepared to run, but Genevieve spoke to them and convinced them to stay within their homes, fast and pray to the Lord. She assured them they would have the protection of Heaven. Her prediction came true as Attila suddenly changed his path and turned away from Paris.
Genevieve died at 89-years-old on January 3, 512.
Shortly after she was buried, the people built a small church over her tomb, asking for the intercession of Saints Peter and Paul. Although her tomb remains there and can still be seen today, it is empty.
Her relics were encased by St. Eligius in a handmade gold and silver shrine around 630. Over the years, the Normans destroyed the church several times. Once it was rebuilt around 856, St. Genevieve's relics were returned and miracles began happening, making this church famous all throughout France.
Jennifer Lynn Lopez was born on July 24, 1969 in New York City and was raised in the Castle Hill neighborhood of the Bronx.    Her parents, David López and Guadalupe Rodríguez, were born in Puerto Rico and emigrated to the United States as children.   After serving in the army, David worked as a computer technician at Guardian Insurance Company.  Guadalupe was a homemaker for the first ten years of Lopez's life and later worked as a Tupperware salesperson  and as a kindergarten and gym teacher.   (David and Guadalupe divorced in the 1990s after 33 years of marriage.) 
Lopez is a middle child she has an older sister, Leslie, and a younger sister, Lynda.  The three sisters shared a bedroom.  Lopez has described her upbringing as "strict".  She was raised in a Catholic family she attended Mass every Sunday  and received a Catholic education, attending Holy Family School and the all-girls Preston High School.  In school, Lopez ran track on a national level, participated in gymnastics, and was a member of the softball team.   She danced in school musicals and played a leading role in a production of Godspell. 
There was "lots of music" in the typically Puerto Rican household, and Lopez and her sisters were encouraged to sing, dance and create their own plays for family events.   West Side Story made a particular impression on the young Lopez and she wanted to be an entertainer from an early age.  At the age of five, she began taking dance lessons at Ballet Hispánico on the Upper West Side.  As a teenager, she learned flamenco, jazz and ballet at the Kips Bay Boys & Girls Club  and taught dance to younger students, including Kerry Washington.  After graduating high school, Lopez had a part-time secretarial job at a law firm   and studied business at New York's Baruch College for one semester.   At the age of 18, Lopez enrolled as a full-time student at Manhattan's Phil Black Dance Studio, where she had already been taking night classes in jazz and tap dance.    Her parents were unhappy with her decision to leave college to pursue a career as a professional dancer.  Her mother asked her to move out of the family home and they stopped speaking for eight months.   Lopez moved to Manhattan, sleeping in the dance studio's office for the first few months.   
1986–1996: Career beginnings and early roles
Lopez's first professional job came in 1989 when she spent five months touring Europe with the musical revue show Golden Musicals of Broadway. She was the only member of the chorus not to have a solo and later characterized it as a pivotal moment where she realized the importance of a "tough skin" in the entertainment business.  In 1990, she made her television debut in an episode of Yo! MTV Raps, in which she danced alongside MC Hammer.  Also in 1990, she travelled around Japan for four months as a chorus member in Synchronicity.  When she returned to the United States, she was hired as a backup dancer for New Kids on the Block's performance of "Games" during the American Music Awards of 1991  and danced in the music video for EPMD's Rampage.  She also travelled around America as part of regional productions of the musicals Jesus Christ Superstar and Oklahoma! 
Shortly after, Lopez gained her first regular high-profile job as a Fly Girl dancer on the television program In Living Color. She applied for the job after one of the cast members was unable to continue with the show. Out of 2,000 applicants, Lopez made it to the finals. She was the runner-up but eventually received the role when the winner was unable to accept the job. She moved to Los Angeles to film the series and remained a regular cast member until 1993, when she decided to pursue a full-time acting career. A casting director asked Lopez to audition for South Central after watching her perform on the show.  Prior to leaving the show, Lopez briefly worked as a backup dancer for American recording artist Janet Jackson, including in the video “That’s the Way Love Goes”.  Lopez was set to tour with Jackson on her Janet World Tour in late 1993 but backed out as she wanted to do her "own thing". 
Lopez received her first professional acting gig in the direct-to-video drama film Lost in the Wild (1993), co-starring with Lindsay Wagner and Robert Loggia.  Later in 1993, Lopez signed a deal with CBS to co-star in the television series Second Chances. Lopez received her first major big-screen role in Gregory Nava's 1995 drama My Family portraying Young Maria.  Although her role was uncredited, Lopez received an Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female nomination for her performance.  In November 1995, Lopez starred in Money Train alongside Wesley Snipes and Woody Harrelson as New York City transit cops. In August 1996, Lopez had a supporting role in the comedy Jack. 
1997–1999: Breakthrough with Selena and On the 6
In February 1997, Lopez starred alongside Jack Nicholson and Stephen Dorff in the neo-noir thriller Blood and Wine.  Lopez starred as the title role of the Selena biopic of the same name in March.  Despite having previously worked with the film's director on My Family, Lopez was subjected to an intense auditioning process before she was cast in the film.  Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times stated that even in the "forgettable films" Money Train, and Jack, Lopez's "presence and ability made her seem just one role away from stardom" and with Selena she's "seized the opportunity and turned in an incandescent presentation that is especially strong during the film's numerous musical numbers". He concluded by calling the film not just a celebration of Selena's life, but also of the actress who portrayed her.  The announcement was described as the "role of a lifetime" from news outlets and Lopez's salary for the film was reported at US$1 million,   which made Lopez the highest-paid Hispanic actress in history. After filming Selena, Lopez was "really feeling [her] Latin roots" and cut a demo in Spanish.  Lopez's manager then sent the song, titled "Vivir Sin Ti" (Living without You), to Sony Music Entertainment's Work Group, who showed an interest in signing Lopez. Tommy Mottola, the head of the label suggested to her that she sing in English instead. 
In April 1997, Lopez starred in the horror film Anaconda alongside Ice Cube and Jon Voight.  Lopez starred alongside Sean Penn and Billy Bob Thornton in the crime film U Turn, in October 1997. The film, which is based on the novel Stray Dogs by John Ridley, received somewhat positive reviews from critics.  In June 1998, Lopez starred opposite George Clooney in Out of Sight, Steven Soderbergh's adaptation of Elmore Leonard's novel of the same name.  Cast as a deputy federal marshal who falls for a charming criminal, Lopez won rave reviews for her performance.  Lopez provided the voice of Azteca in the computer-animated film Antz in October 1998. 
Lopez's debut single, "If You Had My Love", was released in May 1999, as she began to ready her first album.   Lopez became the first artist to top the Billboard Hot 100 with a debut single since Britney Spears did so with her single ". Baby One More Time" four months prior.  Her debut album was named On the 6, to reflect the New York City Subway rail line connecting her home in the Bronx to work in Manhattan. During production of the album, Lopez was made aware that she received her recording contract on the basis of her looks and an already established name in the entertainment industry, and she wanted to prove she had musical talent.  Prior to the debut of her music, critics wondered why she would take the risk of launching a music career. It was noted that: "If the album was a flop, not only would it embarrass Lopez, but it might even damage her career."  "Waiting for Tonight", the third single from On the 6, is widely considered to be Lopez's best song.  Lopez's musical success came as a surprise to critics its launch made the "popular actor even more popular". Both the music industry and the public became intrigued by "this woman who seemed to have so many different talents".  By the end of 1999, Lopez successfully converted herself from a film star to a pop star.  She joined a select few in achieving this feat, becoming the first since Vanessa Williams (1992) and Martika (1989). 
2000–2002: Film success, J.Lo and This Is Me. Then
On February 23, 2000, Lopez, accompanied by then-boyfriend Sean Combs, wore a plunging exotic green Versace silk chiffon dress on the red carpet of the 42nd Annual Grammy Awards. The dress "had a low-cut neck that extended several inches below her navel, where it was loosely fastened with a sparkly brooch and then opened out again," exposing her midriff and then as cut along the front of the legs like a bath robe.  The dress generated controversy and media attention, with images of Lopez in the dress being downloaded from the Grammy website over half a million times within 24 hours of the event.  Lopez was surprised by the enormous media coverage, declaring that she had no idea "it was going to become such a big deal".  Lopez returned to the big screen in August 2000, starring in the psychological thriller The Cell opposite Vincent D'Onofrio. 
During the process of recording her second album, Lopez decided to tweak her image as she began to develop into a sex symbol. She started going by J.Lo, something fans often called her  in the years after director Oliver Stone coined the term on the set of the 1997 film U Turn.  She subsequently named the album J.Lo. Released on January 23, 2001, it was a commercial success, debuting at number one on the US Billboard 200.  During the same week, her romantic comedy film The Wedding Planner in which she starred opposite Matthew McConaughey opened atop the box office. This made her the first woman to have a number one film and album simultaneously in the United States.  The album was preceded by the release of its lead single, "Love Don't Cost a Thing", which reached number one on the Billboard Mainstream Top 40 chart. It was followed by the single "Play".  In April 2001, Lopez launched J.Lo by Jennifer Lopez, her own clothing and accessory company. Lopez felt that "the voluptuous woman [was] almost ignored" in the fashion industry, and therefore her company specialized in clothing women of all shapes.  The following month, she starred in the romantic drama film Angel Eyes, which performed disappointingly at the box office and generated mixed reviews.  After several months, J.Lo was declining on the charts this prompted Mottola to recruit rapper Ja Rule to create an urban-oriented remix of the song "I'm Real". This led to the release of "I'm Real (Murder Remix)", which quickly reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Its success resulted in J.Lo being reissued to include the single, which was number one in the United States during the week of the September 11 attacks.  J.Lo became the best-selling album of Lopez's career, having sold 3.8 million copies in the US and moved over 12 million units worldwide.  
Having redefined Lopez's sound with "I'm Real (Murder Remix)", Epic decided to release further remixes in order to "keep the momentum going".  A remix album entitled J to tha L–O! The Remixes was subsequently released on February 5, 2002. It debuted at the summit of the Billboard 200, making it the first remix album to do so. Its lead single, "Ain't It Funny (Murder Remix)", featuring Ja Rule and Caddillac Tah, reached number one in the US.  J to tha L–O! The Remixes became one of the best-selling remix albums of all time, selling 1.5 million copies in the US.  It produced two more singles: "I'm Gonna Be Alright" and "Alive", a ballad co-written by her husband at the time, Cris Judd. In April 2002, Lopez opened her restaurant, Madrè's.  The following month, she starred in the thriller film Enough, which was described by the Boston Herald as a "kick-butt, female empowerment" film.  While filming Enough, which required an overworked Lopez to practice Krav Maga, she suffered a nervous breakdown. She recalled feeling "sick and weird", refusing therapeutic help or medication. She confessed, "I was like – I don't want to move, I don't want to talk, I don't want to do anything."  In September, she released her first fragrance, Glow by JLo. It performed strongly despite predictions that it would fail, and became the top-selling fragrance in the US. 
Lopez's third studio album, This Is Me. Then, was released on November 25, 2002. It was dedicated to actor Ben Affleck, her fiancé at the time. The album's lead single "Jenny from the Block", was later described by Sam Lansky of MTV News as her most iconic single.  In the song, Lopez "intones her modest childhood roots".  The album itself performed strongly, selling 2.6 million copies in the US.  Its second single, "All I Have", peaked at number one in the US. That December, Lopez starred opposite Ralph Fiennes in the romantic comedy Maid in Manhattan, which became the highest-grossing film of her career. 
2003–2005: Continued film success and Rebirth
In August 2003, Lopez starred opposite Affleck in the romantic comedy Gigli. The film was a box office bomb and is considered one of the worst films of all time. The film's poor reception was attributed to negative press preceding its release, as well as the media attention surrounding Lopez and Affleck's engagement which largely overshadowed the film.   Lopez would later describe this as the lowest point of her career, saying "[It] was very tough", "the tabloid press had just come into existence at the time, so I was like a poster child for that moment."  In October of that year, she released her next fragrance, Still Jennifer Lopez. Lopez also launched her next fashion label, Sweetface. It was described by Andy Hilfiger as a "more intellectual, more inspirational collection than J-Lo by Jennifer Lopez. Less sporty, more suede."  Lopez's clothing lines and two fragrances generated over $300 million in revenue throughout 2004, which made her the 19th richest person under 40. 
In March 2004, Lopez had a minor role in the film Jersey Girl, alongside Affleck. Her character, Gertrude Steiney, dies during childbirth within the first 15 minutes of the film. From the intense media scrutiny following the couple's break-up, it was noted that "they may need to put Lopez in a coffin on the poster if they want anyone to come".  In October, Lopez co-starred alongside Richard Gere in the drama Shall We Dance?, a re-make of the 1996 Japanese film of the same title. The film was successful at the box office, and was considered a rebound for Lopez following Gigli. 
After placing her career on hiatus, Lopez released her fourth studio album, Rebirth, in February 2005. According to Lopez, Rebirth "came about because I was on such a roller-coaster ride, that was my career from my first album to my last album, and I did a bunch of movie projects in between. I finally took some time just for myself, and [when] I came back, this was the first project I did. I felt like it was a new beginning for me, like I was, in a way, reborn."  Tracy Hopkins of NBC's Today Music noted that after "fawning" over Affleck on This Is Me. Then", Lopez "wisely keeps her love life out of the spotlight" on Rebirth and only references her relationship with singer/actor Marc Anthony on a few tracks.  The album produced the single "Get Right", which peaked at number one in the United Kingdom.  In May, she starred alongside Jane Fonda in the romantic comedy Monster-in-Law, for which she received a salary of $15 million.  The film's marketing played up Lopez's "Gigli-and-tabloid tarnished image", and it became a box office success.   In August, Lopez starred alongside Robert Redford and Morgan Freeman in An Unfinished Life, a drama film based on the novel of the same name.
2006–2009: Como Ama una Mujer and career setbacks
In April 2006, Lopez reappeared on the Billboard Hot 100 as a featured artist on "Control Myself", the lead single from LL Cool J's twelfth studio album Todd Smith. The song peaked at number four on the chart following its release as a music download, making it the pair's second collaboration to reach the top five.  Bordertown, a film based on the female homicides in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, made its premiere at the Cannes Film Festival on May 18, 2006. Lopez, who also acts as the film's producer, stars as Lauren Adrian, an American news reporter for the Chicago Sentinel who wants to be assigned to the Iraq front-lines to cover the war.  Bordertown received a direct-to-video release.  DanceLife, a reality series following the lives of seven dancers trying to break into the world of professional dance, aired on MTV from January 15 to March 5, 2007. Lopez produced, created and was featured in the show.  According to the album's co-producer Estéfano, Lopez's fifth studio album Como Ama una Mujer would "prove critics wrong" with its "big songs that require a voice" referring to the criticism of Lopez having a "limited" vocal tone.   The album's lead single "Qué Hiciste" reached number one on Billboard ' s Hot Latin Songs chart. Lopez performed the song on the sixth season of American Idol on April 11, 2007, becoming the first person to perform a Spanish song on the series.  The album received the highest first-week sales in the United States for a debut Spanish album and the highest digital sales.  
In September 2007, Lopez starred in the biographical film El Cantante, which is based on the life of the late salsa singer Héctor Lavoe. In the film, Lavoe is portrayed by then-husband Marc Anthony while Lopez plays Lavoe's wife Puchi.  Lopez revealed that she felt her performance in the film El Cantante should have earned her an Oscar.  "I feel like I had that [Oscar worthy role] in 'El Cantante,' but I don't think the academy members saw it".  El Cantante did not perform well at the box office, earning just $7.6 million.  Lopez performed the song "Toma de Mí" for the film's soundtrack. Lopez and Anthony also launched their co-headlining North American concert tour on September 28.  Lopez's sixth studio album Brave, released in October, was her lowest-charting album worldwide.  The album produced two singles, "Do It Well" and "Hold It Don't Drop It". The first peaked at number 31 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, while the latter failed to make any significant impact on the charts. A five-part miniseries, Jennifer Lopez Presents: Como Ama una Mujer, based on the lyrics of Como Ama una Mujer aired on Univision from October 30 to November 27, 2007. She placed her career on hiatus after giving birth to twins in February 2008.  In late 2009, Lopez released two songs for her seventh studio album, Love? ("Louboutins" and "Fresh Out of the Oven") however, the songs failed to make an appearance on the Billboard charts, which led to her departure from Epic Records. 
2010–2013: Career rejuvenation with American Idol and Love?
Lopez parted ways with Epic Records in February 2010, citing that she had fulfilled her contractual obligations and now wished to release her seventh studio album Love? under a new label.  Her departure from the label temporarily halted production on the album, which commenced in 2009. Upon signing a new contract with Island Records, recording resumed on the album.  The New York Daily News revealed that Lopez would be taking some of the records recorded under Sony Music Entertainment to her new label so that they could be included on the album.  In April, Lopez starred in the romantic comedy The Back-up Plan, her first theatrical role in three years.  In June, following the departure of Ellen DeGeneres from American Idol, it was reported that Lopez was in talks to join season ten's judging panel.    During this same time, Lopez and Anthony were being considered for a role on The X Factor for their appeal to Latin and International markets.  It was officially announced in September that Lopez would be joining the tenth season of American Idol. MTV stated that the deal was "mutually beneficial to all those involved", while CNN reported that Lopez was viewing it as a decision to revive her career, while American Idol producers believed that Lopez and Steven Tyler's appointments would strengthen viewing figures.  In October, Lopez released her fourteenth fragrance, Love and Glamour. The perfume was inspired by Lopez's forthcoming "return to the spotlight". 
L'Oréal Paris named Lopez their new Global Ambassador and the face of their brands, including EverPure hair care, Preference hair color and Youth Code skin care. Her EverSleek hair care ads made their debut in early 2011, to coincide with the release of Love? and her debut as a judge on American Idol.  To further promote her comeback, in February, Venus chose Lopez as their new Global Ambassador.  Lopez's comeback single "On the Floor" was released later that same month. The song topped the charts across the globe, becoming one of the most successful singles of the year.  The song also became her highest charting single commercially as a lead artist, as well as her most successful airplay hit on contemporary hit radio, since "Jenny from the Block".  Love?, which was released in May, was a moderate commercial success, and was viewed as a humble comeback from Lopez, as many had considered her recording career over.  Lopez launched her next fragrance Love and Light in July, exclusively on HSN. 51,000 bottles of the fragrance were sold at its premiere, becoming Lopez's most successful fragrance launch to date, making over $2.9 million.  In September, Lopez launched the Jennifer Lopez Collection, a clothing and accessories line for Kohl's with Tommy Hilfiger.  In addition to the clothing line, she also launched the Jennifer Lopez Home Collection, featuring bedding, towels and luggage.  Later that same month Fiat, an Italian automobile manufacturer, enlisted Lopez to promote their products, including the 2012 Fiat 500 Cabrio. Olivier Francois, the Chrysler chief marketing officer, stated that she "fits perfectly with the brand". 
In January 2012, Lopez returned as a judge on the eleventh season of American Idol, earning a reported $20 million.  Later that same month, a new talent show, ¡Q'Viva! The Chosen, created by Simon Fuller premiered on Univision and was a hit for the channel.  It followed Lopez, Anthony, and director-choreographer Jamie King as they travelled across 21 countries in Latin America to find new talent for a Las Vegas show. On May 18, Lopez returned to the big screen starring alongside an ensemble cast consisting of Cameron Diaz, Elizabeth Banks, Matthew Morrison and Dennis Quaid in the film What to Expect When You're Expecting, which is based on the novel of the same name.  In late May, Lopez released her fragrance Glowing by JLo, which she described as an "evolution" of Glow by JLo. 
Lopez launched the Dance Again World Tour, her first headlining concert tour, on June 14, 2012.  It was a lucrative, grossing over $1 million per show.  On July 12, she launched Teeology, a luxury T-shirt e-commerce.  Lopez voiced Shira, a saber tooth tiger, in the animated film, Ice Age: Continental Drift, the fourth film in the Ice Age franchise.  The film became her highest opening weekend figure, at $46 million. 
Lopez's first greatest hits album, Dance Again. the Hits, was released on July 24, 2012 in the United States.  It was released by Epic Records, as Lopez owed them one final album to end her contract, despite previously announcing that she had fulfilled her contract with the label.  Lopez, who was going through a divorce with Anthony and the "breakup of a family", felt as if the album's sole single, "Dance Again", had come to her at the "perfect moment".   "Dance Again" and "Goin' In", a single from the soundtrack of the dance film Step Up Revolution, both reached the top of the Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs, giving Lopez her twelfth and thirteenth number one on that chart, respectively.  nuvoTV announced in September its premier partnership with Lopez, that will see her work on the creative side of the network, managing marketing and program production with her production company, Nuyorican Productions, as well as periodically appearing in network programming.  
In January 2013, Lopez starred alongside Jason Statham in the crime thriller Parker, in which she played Leslie. Her performance earned positive reviews, with Chicago Tribune commending the role for giving Lopez "an opportunity to be dramatic, romantic, funny, depressed, euphoric and violent. The audience stays with her all the way".  The following month, she gained widespread notoriety for wearing a daring black dress at the Grammy Awards, which revealed her entire right leg despite a conservative dress code which had been issued to celebrities in attendance.  In May, Lopez was announced as the chief creative officer of nuvoTV. In addition, she founded the mobile phone retail brand Viva Móvil, which is catered specifically for Latinos.  She lobbied for more Hispanic diversity on television,  hoping to empower the Latin community in these media ventures, stating: "There's a big revolution going on, it's like a media and cultural revolution of Latinos here in the United States. We're realizing our power. We're realizing that we matter here."  Inspired by her gay aunt who had recently died, Lopez signed on as executive producer of the television series The Fosters, which is about a same-sex couple raising a family.  The show premiered on ABC Family on June 3, 2013, and has since been a ratings success for the network.  Later that June, Lopez performed at the birthday of Turkmenistan President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov.  Doing so, she garnered widespread backlash for performing for the leader of a "repressive, authoritarian regime". Her publicist released an apology.  Lopez returned as judge on American Idol for its thirteenth season for a reported salary of $17.5 million.  She was ranked as the fifth highest-paid woman in music for 2013, having earned $45 million. 
2014–2017: Television ventures and residency show
After the conclusion of her Dance Again World Tour, Lopez began recording her eighth studio album, A.K.A., inspired by her travels.  It was released in June 2014 through Capitol Records, experiencing lackluster sales.  The album produced three singles: "I Luh Ya Papi", which features French Montana, "First Love", and "Booty", featuring Pitbull or rapper Iggy Azalea. "Booty" debuted inside the top twenty in the United States, making it her second-highest debut on the Billboard Hot 100 after "On the Floor".  In April, the official song for the 2014 FIFA World Cup performed by Pitbull, Lopez and Brazilian recording artist Claudia Leitte, "We Are One (Ole Ola)", was released. She was ranked as the sixth highest-paid woman in music for the year, earning $37 million.  In November 2014, Lopez partnered with Endless Jewelry, designing a range of new jewelry products.  That month, she also released first her book, True Love, which became a New York Times best-seller. 
January 2015 saw the release of The Boy Next Door, an erotic thriller that Lopez both co-produced and starred in as a high school teacher who becomes involved with a student, which eventually leads to his dangerous obsession with her.  The film received negative reviews from critics.  Despite this, it became her most successful opening at the box office for a live action film since Monster-in-Law,  and ultimately grossed over $53 million at the global box office, against a production budget of $4 million.  Lopez had a voice role in the animated feature Home, alongside Steve Martin, Jim Parsons, and Rihanna, and released in March 2015.  She contributed the single "Feel the Light" to the film's official soundtrack.  Lopez also starred in the independent drama film Lila & Eve, alongside Viola Davis.  With annual earnings of $28.5 million, she was ranked as the seventh highest-paid woman in music for 2015. 
Lopez starred as Detective Harlee Santos in NBC's crime drama series Shades of Blue (also serving as an executive producer), a single mother and police detective in New York City who goes undercover for the FBI to investigate her own squad.  It premiered on January 7, 2016, giving the network its most-watched Thursday debut in seven years with 8.6 million viewers.  Lopez's performance received positive reviews.    Shades of Blue was renewed for a second season, which premiered in March 2017.  That same month, the series was renewed for a third season.   In May 2015, she announced her Las Vegas residency concert show, which commenced on January 20, 2016, the first of twenty initial dates. Titled All I Have, it takes place at Planet Hollywood's Zappos Theater.   The residency has been lucrative,  and Lopez signed a three-year contract which saw her perform 120 shows.  The residency concluded on September 29, 2018, having grossed over $100 million in ticket sales during its three-year run.  In March 2016, six years after announcing her departure, she announced her return to Epic Records, signing a multi-album deal with the label.  Her first single since returning to Epic, "Ain't Your Mama", was released the following month.  With earnings of $39.5 million, she was among the highest-paid female artists from June 2015 to June 2016.  Lopez reprised her voice role as Shira in the animated film Ice Age: Collision Course, which was released in July 2016. 
In collaboration with Giuseppe Zanotti, Lopez designed a capsule collection of shoes and jewelry. Giuseppe for Jennifer Lopez launched in January 2017.  In July 2016, Lopez announced a new dance competition series entitled World of Dance, for which she serves as an executive producer and judge. Created in partnership with World of Dance, the series was greenlit by NBC with a straight-to-series order for ten episodes.  World of Dance premiered on May 30, 2017 with 9.7 million viewers, it became the most-watched premiere for a summer alternative series in nine years.   According to Forbes, Lopez was the eleventh highest-paid female celebrity between June 2016 and June 2017, with earnings of $38 million.  Lopez had announced in October 2016 that she was working on a second full-length Spanish album, which was set to be released through Sony Music Latin, with Marc Anthony serving as an executive producer.   It was to be titled Por Primera Vez, which translates to For the First Time in English.  The album, which never materialized,  produced two singles: "Ni Tú Ni Yo" (featuring Cuban reggaeton group Gente de Zona)   and "Amor, Amor, Amor" featuring Wisin. 
2018–present: Hustlers and Super Bowl LIV halftime show
In April 2018, Lopez launched her limited-edition makeup collection in collaboration with Inglot Cosmetics.  That month, she was named one of Time ' s 100 most influential people in the world,  and released a new Spanish single, "El Anillo".  The following month, she released a bilingual single titled "Dinero", featuring DJ Khaled and Cardi B.  With earnings of $47 million between June 2017 and June 2018, Forbes listed Lopez as the sixth highest-paid woman in music.  In December 2018, Lopez starred in the comedy film Second Act, directed by Peter Segal she also produced the film,  and recorded the single "Limitless" for its soundtrack.  Second Act earned mixed reviews from critics,  but performed well at the box office, grossing over $72.2 million worldwide with a production budget of $16 million. 
In February 2019, Lopez announced that she will be embarking on her first concert tour in nearly seven years to celebrate her upcoming 50th birthday. Titled It's My Party, the international tour ran from June to August, grossing an estimated $54.7 million from thirty-eight shows.  In March, alongside her fiancé Alex Rodriguez, Lopez launched a collection of sunglasses with the brand Quay Australia.  The following month, she premiered the single "Medicine" featuring French Montana, her first release through L.A. Reid's Hitco Entertainment label. 
Lopez next starred in the film Hustlers (2019), for which she also served as an executive producer, and which grossed over US$100 million in North American box office receipts alone. Directed by Lorene Scafaria, the film is inspired by a true story, following a group of Manhattan strippers who con wealthy men.   Lopez's portrayal of a veteran stripper in Hustlers garnered acclaim from critics, with some deeming it the best performance of her acting career.    The film also gave Lopez her highest opening weekend at the box office for a live action film (grossing $33.2 million),  and garnered her nominations for Best Supporting Actress at the Golden Globe Awards, Screen Actors Guild Awards, Critics' Choice Movie Awards and Independent Spirit Awards.  The success of Hustlers has been regarded by various media outlets as a comeback for Lopez.    Also in September 2019, Lopez modeled an updated version of her Green Versace dress at Milan Fashion Week her appearance generated $31.8 million in total media impact value.   Following this, she launched her twenty-fifth fragrance, which is titled Promise,  and was announced as the global face of the Coach brand. 
In September 2019, it was announced that Lopez would co-headline the Super Bowl LIV halftime show alongside Shakira, which took place on February 2, 2020, in Miami, Florida.   Her daughter, Emme Maribel Muñiz, also made an appearance at the show.   Lopez executive produced and appeared in an episode of Thanks a Million, a series with a "pay it forward" theme which premiered on Quibi in April 2020.  That month, Lopez also appeared in the television special One World: Together at Home, performing a rendition of "People" by Barbra Streisand, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.  In September, she released a two-song collaboration with Colombian singer Maluma, "Pa' Ti + Lonely". Both songs will be featured on the soundtrack for her upcoming film, Marry Me.  That December, Lopez headlined the entertainment segment of Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve with Ryan Seacrest in Times Square her set list during the performance included her single "In the Morning" and a cover of the 1973 classic rock ballad "Dream On" by Aerosmith. 
In January 2021, Lopez launched her skincare line, JLo Beauty.  That month, she performed at the inauguration of President Joe Biden in Washington, D.C., where she sang "This Land Is Your Land" and "America the Beautiful", while also reciting the last phrase of the Pledge of Allegiance in Spanish.   In June 2021, it was announced that Lopez (through Nuyorican Productions) had signed a multi-year deal with Netflix to produce a range of films and television shows. 
Lopez will next star in Marry Me opposite Owen Wilson for Universal Pictures, which is set to be released on February 11, 2022.  She is attached to star as drug lord Griselda Blanco in The Godmother for STX Entertainment, which will focus on the "rise and fall" of Blanco. She will also serve as an executive producer for the film, which is currently in development. 
Lopez will produce and star in four other films in development: the action-comedy Shotgun Wedding,  and three films for Netflix including an adaption of Kathe Koja's novel The Cipher,  the action feature The Mother (directed by Niki Caro),  and the sci-fi thriller Atlas (directed by Brad Peyton). 
Lopez was in a nearly decade-long relationship with David Cruz, her high school boyfriend, until the mid-1990s.  She was married to Cuban waiter Ojani Noa from February 1997 until January 1998. In subsequent court cases, Noa was prevented from publishing a book about the marriage   and from using private honeymoon footage of Lopez in a documentary.   Lopez had an on-off relationship with record producer and rapper Sean Combs (then known as "Puff Daddy") from 1999 to early 2001.   On the night of December 27, 1999, Lopez and Combs were arrested and charged with criminal possession of a weapon and possession of stolen property, after leaving the scene of a shooting at a Times Square nightclub. Charges against Lopez were dropped within an hour  while Combs was acquitted of all charges at trial in early 2001,  after which the couple split.  Lopez later said that, while she had "cared very much" about Combs, their "crazy, tumultuous" relationship "was always something I knew would end."   Lopez was married to Cris Judd, her former back-up dancer, from September 2001 to June 2002. 
Lopez had a relationship with actor Ben Affleck from mid-2002 to early 2004, after meeting on the set of Gigli in late 2001.   They later worked together on the music video "Jenny from the Block" and the movie Jersey Girl (2004).   Their relationship received widespread media coverage.  Tabloids referred to the couple as "Bennifer", a portmanteau which Vanity Fair described as "the first of that sort of tabloid branding".  They became engaged in November 2002  but their planned wedding on September 14, 2003 was postponed with four days' notice because of "excessive media attention".  They ended their engagement in January 2004.  Years later, Lopez said Affleck's discomfort with the media scrutiny was one reason for their split   and described it as her "first real heartbreak": "I think different time, different thing, who knows what could’ve happened."   Affleck and Lopez remained in contact in the years after their split and spoke positively of each other in the press.    
Lopez was married to singer Marc Anthony from June 2004 to July 2011   they had previously dated for a few months in the late 1990s.  Their wedding took place five months after the end of her relationship with Affleck she later described it as "a Band-Aid on the cut" and recalled a "rocky start" to the marriage.   Lopez gave birth to fraternal twins, Maximilian David and Emme Maribel, on Long Island, in February 2008.   People paid a reported US$6 million for the first photographs of the twins, making them the most expensive celebrity pictures ever taken at the time.  The couple announced their separation in July 2011. Anthony filed for divorce in April 2012  and it was finalized in June 2014. Lopez retained primary physical custody of the two children.  
Lopez had an on-off relationship with her former backup dancer Casper Smart from October 2011 to August 2016.   She dated New York Yankees baseball player Alex Rodriguez from February 2017 to early 2021.    They became engaged in March 2019  but postponed their wedding twice due to the pandemic. In response to tabloid speculation about the state of their relationship, they released a statement in March 2021, saying they were "working through some things".  They announced the end of their relationship in April 2021.  In April 2021, it was reported that Lopez is dating former fiancé Affleck again. 
In March 2018, Lopez opened up about her own Me Too movement story of being sexually harassed by a director early on in her career, when she was asked to take her top off during one of her first films.  
Following the September 11 attacks, Lopez was heavily involved in charitable activities. Joining various other artists, she was featured on charitable singles such as "What's Going On" and "El Ultimo Adios (The Last Goodbye)", which benefited people affected by the tragedy.   One dollar from each ticket sold at Lopez and Anthony's co-headlining North American concert tour, which grossed an estimated $10 million, was donated to Run for Something Better—a charitable organization supporting physical fitness programs for children.   In February 2007, Lopez was honored with the Artists for Amnesty prize by the human rights organization Amnesty International, for her work in the film Bordertown, which shed light on the hundreds of feminicides in Ciudad Juárez. Lopez described it as "one of the world's most shocking and disturbing, underreported crimes against humanity".  
In 2009, Lopez launched the Lopez Family Foundation (originally known as the Maribel Foundation) alongside her sister, Lynda. The nonprofit organization seeks to increase the availability of healthcare for underprivileged women and children, offering a telemedicine program supported by a partnership with the Children's Hospital Los Angeles. The foundation has led to the expansion of medical facilities in Panama and Puerto Rico, and created the Center for a Healthy Childhood at the Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx.  
In December 2012, Lopez held a charity drive that would affect her three favorite charities: the Gloria Wise Boys and Girls Club, the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles as well as the American Red Cross, mainly benefiting victims of Hurricane Sandy, which devastated parts of her hometown, New York City.  In May 2015, she became the first national celebrity spokesperson for the Children's Miracle Network Hospitals and the BC Children's Hospital Foundation (BCCHF), appearing in a campaign entitled "Put Your Money Where the Miracles Are".  That September, Lopez was announced as the first Global Advocate for Girls and Women at the United Nations Foundation.  This role sees her mobilizing action to address challenges faced by girls and women around the world, including maternal health care programs, education and violence against women.  In September 2017, following Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria, Lopez announced that she would be donating $1 million from the proceeds of her Las Vegas residency to humanitarian aid for Puerto Rico.   Along with ex-husband Marc Anthony, she launched a humanitarian relief campaign entitled Somos Una Voz (English: We Are One Voice), an effort supported by various celebrities to rush supplies to areas affected by Hurricane Maria.  Lopez and Anthony presented a subsequent concert and telethon for disaster relief, "One Voice: Somos Live!", which raised over $35 million.  She was also among various artists featured on Lin-Manuel Miranda's charity single "Almost Like Praying" which benefits Puerto Rico. 
Lopez is an avid supporter of LGBT rights, and has raised millions of dollars for HIV/AIDS research.  In June 2013, amfAR presented Lopez with its humanitarian award for her philanthropic work.  That September, she was awarded the Ally for Equality award presented by the Human Rights Campaign, for her support of the LGBT community.  The following year, she received the GLAAD Vanguard Award.  In July 2016, Lopez released a single entitled "Love Make the World Go Round", a collaboration with Lin-Manuel Miranda, which benefits victims of the Orlando nightclub shooting.  She was also featured on the song "Hands" along with numerous other artists, also benefiting those affected by the Orlando shooting.  Among numerous other artists, Lopez signed an open letter from Billboard magazine to the United States Congress in 2016, which demanded action on gun control. 
Lopez endorsed President Barack Obama in his 2012 presidential campaign, speaking in television advertisements and attending a fundraising event for Obama in Paris.   She endorsed Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton in 2016, headlining a free concert in Florida in support of her that October.   In June 2020, Lopez attended a Black Lives Matter movement protest in Los Angeles, in connection with the broader George Floyd protests.  Lopez has also been an active advocate for the Time's Up movement. 
Influences and musical style
Lopez has cited Madonna as her "first big musical influence", explaining "It was all about Madonna for me. She inspired me to want to sing, to dance, to work hard."   Other "big influences in [her] life" include Tina Turner, James Brown, and Michael Jackson.  Growing up, she was influenced by Latin music styles ranging from salsa to bachata, but it was the 1979 hip hop song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang that she said changed her life.  She was also "hugely inspired in her youth" by Rita Moreno's performance in the 1961 musical film West Side Story.  Lopez has cited Janet Jackson as a major inspiration for her own dance and videos, stating that she "probably started dancing" because of Jackson's music video for "The Pleasure Principle".   She looks to the careers of Cher and Diana Ross.  Lopez has also been influenced by younger artists such as Lady Gaga.  
According to author Ed Morales in The Latin Beat: The Rhythms And Roots Of Latin Music From Bossa Nova To Salsa And Beyond (2003), Lopez's music explores the "romantic innocence" of Latin music, while strongly identifying with hip hop.  Her debut album On the 6 fuses the influence of Latin music with R&B and hip hop, which Lopez described as Latin soul. To the contrary, Morales described it as "state-of-the-art dance pop".  Dee Lockett, writing for the Chicago Tribune, stated that songs such as "Waiting for Tonight" made Lopez "arguably the leading artist in the dance-pop movement at the time".  While primarily sung in English, she speaks in Spanish and asserts her Latin heritage throughout the album, which is apparent in the song "Let's Get Loud".    She has also recorded bilingual songs, including the Latin pop song "Cariño", for her second album J.Lo.  A departure from her previous albums, This Is Me. Then blends 1970s soul with "streetwise" hip hop. 
Described as autobiographical,  much of Lopez's music has centered around the "ups and downs" of love.  The lyrical content of This Is Me. Then is largely focused on her relationship with Ben Affleck, with the song "Dear Ben" being described as the album's "glowing centerpiece".  Her first full-length Spanish-language album, Como Ama una Mujer features introspective lyrics about romance, heartache and self-loathing.  When explaining her seventh studio album Love?, Lopez stated: "There's still so much to learn and that's why the question mark."  Other recurrent themes in Lopez's music have included her upbringing in the Bronx   and women's empowerment. 
Critics have considered Lopez's voice to be limited,   and overshadowed by the production of her music, while remaining "radio-friendly".  Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone remarked: "Instead of strained vocal pyrotechnics, Lopez sticks to the understated R&B murmur of a round-the-way superstar who doesn't need to belt because she knows you're already paying attention [. ] She makes a little va-va and a whole lot of voom go a long way."  Meanwhile, AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine called her voice "slight" and wrote: "Lopez was never, ever about singing she was about style".  Entertainment Weekly criticized her vocal performance for lacking the trademark "husky-voiced voluptuousness" she has in her films.  J. D. Considine of The Baltimore Sun regards Lopez as having a "breathy" stylistic range, but lacking personality. 
Dance and stage
Considered one of dance's "greatest success stories",  Refinery29 ranked Lopez at number two on "11 Of Pop's Most Iconic Dancers" in 2015.  Lopez felt an emotional connection to dance since her youth, when she specialized in ballet, jazz and flamenco.   Her career commenced on the variety television sketch comedy series In Living Color, where she was a part of an ethnically diverse dance group known as the Fly Girls.  Since beginning her music career, Lopez has become known for her body-emphasizing music videos, which often include dance routines.  CNN's Holly Thomas noted that "Lopez's years of professional dance experience gave her a captivating, commanding presence in her videos."  Some of these videos have been the subject of controversy, including "Jenny from the Block", "Dance Again" and "Booty".   Her provocatively choreographed music video for "If You Had My Love" allowed Lopez to become a dominant figure on MTV networks worldwide.  Madeline Roth of MTV wrote: "Her diverse videography encompasses some of the most memorable visuals of the 21st century",  with Rolling Stone writer Brittany Spanos observing that her "dancing skills and ability to toy with her own celebrity have made her videos an important part of the new millennium's pop canon". 
On stage, Lopez is recognized for her showmanship and sex appeal,  and often includes costumes such as bodysuits as part of her performance.   Author Priscilla Peña Ovalle stated in Dance and the Hollywood Latina: Race, Sex and Stardom (2011) that Lopez was one of the Latin stars who "used dance to gain agency as working performers with mainstream careers, yet many of their roles paradoxically racialized and sexualized their bodies".  Troy Patterson of Entertainment Weekly also observed that she used her body for emphasis on stage, "She turned herself out as the fly girl hyperversion of postfeminist power, flaunting her control by toying with the threat of excess. In consequence, her star went supernova."  Her signature movements include "clock-wise pivoting with salsa hip circles and sequential torso undulations".  While being noted to lip sync in the early stages of career, Lopez's Dance Again World Tour was praised for showcasing live vocals and choreography synchronously.    In a review of her Las Vegas residency All I Have, Los Angeles Times writer Nolan Feeney remarked that her dancing is "undoubtedly the centerpiece of the show". 
Lopez's provocative stage performances have also drawn scrutiny at times. In May 2013, her performance on the finale of the television series Britain's Got Talent was deemed inappropriate for family-friendly television, and drew viewer complaints to Ofcom.  Following her controversial performance at the musical festival Mawazine in 2015, Moroccan Prime Minister Abdelilah Benkirane called it "indecent" and "disgraceful", while an education group claimed that she "disturbed public order and tarnished women's honor and respect". 
Speaking of Lopez's image, Andrew Barker of Variety observed: "Despite a carefully cultivated image as an imperious pop empress in ludicrously expensive outfits, her signature hits bear the titles "I'm Real" and "Jenny From the Block". She managed the perilous transition from actress to music star without ever seeming to pick either as a primary gig. She established herself as an oft-provocative sex symbol while her demeanor made it abundantly clear that she's not asking you to come hither."  In 2002, Lynette Holloway of The New York Times described Lopez as overexposed. She wrote: "Forgive yourself if you are seeing Jennifer Lopez in your sleep. She is everywhere." Holloway noted her image to be "a dash of ghetto fabulousness" and "middle-class respectability" for mass appeal.  Entertainment Weekly observed a change in her public profile upon joining American Idol in 2011, writing: "Gone was her old cut-a-bitch swagger J. Lo 2.0 is an all-embracing, Oprahfied earth madre."  Lopez is considered an icon of popular culture.  Television presenter Ray Martin describes her as a "showbiz phenomenon". 
Lopez is widely celebrated for her callipygian figure.  She has been credited with influencing a change in mainstream female body image.  In Latin Sensations (2001), Herón Marquez wrote: "Because she wasn't rail thin, Lopez had broken the mold and allowed millions of women to feel good about their bodies. Suddenly, it was okay for women to have hips, curves, and a big backside."  Vanity Fair described her buttocks as "in and of themselves, a cultural icon".  Details magazine named Lopez the "Sexiest Woman of the Year" in 1998,  and she led FHM ' s "100 Sexiest Women" list twice.  In 2011, she was named "The Most Beautiful Woman" by People.  The following year, VH1 ranked her the fourth on their list of "100 Sexiest Artists",  while Vibe magazine named her the most "lustable" celebrity of the past twenty years.  In 2014, Lopez stated, "There's this funny notion in America that you can't be a mom and be sexy (. ) It's the craziest thing I've ever heard. The truth is that women can be sexy until the day they die." 
Lopez has been a tabloid fixture   and has admitted to having a "less-than-perfect" public image.  The media has drawn comparisons between Lopez and actress Elizabeth Taylor, due to her numerous failed relationships,  and Lopez has been dubbed a "modern-day Liz Taylor" by the media.  Lynn Hirschberg of W compared her glamorous public persona to that of Taylor.  Her style was described by Billboard ' s Lauren Savage as "scantily clad".  She has received a bad reputation as being a demanding "diva",  something which she denies.  In 2003, The Observer remarked that Lopez was "the woman immortalised in a million headlines as 'Hollywood's most demanding diva' . Lopez must wonder what heinous crime she has committed to become the most vilified woman in modern popular culture." 
Lopez is regarded as the most influential Latin performer in North America, credited with breaking ethnic barriers in the entertainment industry.   In 1999, The Record newspaper observed that she was responsible for the introduction of a Latina presence in the film industry, which was a "whites-only preserve" for much of its history.  Described as a "multidimensional artist who had turned into a financial powerhouse",  Lopez became the highest-paid actress of Hispanic descent in history.  Miriam Jiménez Román stated in The Afro-Latin Reader: History and Culture in the United States (2009) that "[she] was able to traverse the difficult racial boundaries".  In 2012, business magazine Forbes suggested that Lopez "may be the most powerful entertainer on the planet",  and named her "the world's most powerful Latino celebrity". 
Upon launching her music career in the late 1990s, Lopez contributed to the "Latin explosion" occurring in entertainment at the time.  Writing for The Recording Academy, Brian Haack described her as the "breakout female star" of the Latin pop movement in American music.  She was featured on the cover of the first issue of Latina magazine in 1996, with editor Galina Espinoza stating in 2011 that there is "no recounting of modern Latina history without Jennifer".  Around the time her career began to burgeon, the emphasis on Lopez's curvaceous figure grew scholar Sean Redmond wrote that this was a sign of her role and social power in the cultural changes occurring in the United States.  In August 2005, Time listed Lopez as one of the most influential Hispanics in America, remarking: "Why? Because over a decade ago, she was an anonymous background dancer on the second-rated sketch-comedy show. Today she's known by two syllables."  In February 2007, People en Español named her the most influential Hispanic entertainer.  In 2014, scientists named a species of aquatic mite found in Puerto Rico, Litarachna lopezae, after Lopez.  
Lopez is considered a global icon, and is often described as a triple threat performer.    VH1 ranked her at number 15 on their list of 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons,  number 16 on 100 Greatest Women In Music,  and number 21 on 50 Greatest Women of the Video Era.  Lopez has been cited as an influence or inspiration by a range of entertainers, including Jessica Alba,  Adrienne Bailon,  Kat DeLuna,  Mike Doughty,  Fifth Harmony,  Becky G,  Selena Gomez,  Ryan Guzman,  Kelly Key,  Q'orianka Kilcher,  Demi Lovato,  Normani,  Rita Ora,  Pitbull,  Francia Raisa,  Naya Rivera,  Bebe Rexha,  Rosa Salazar,  Gwen Stefani,  Stooshe,  and Kerry Washington. 
Stockman was born in Fort Hood, Texas, the son of Allen Stockman, a fruit farmer, and Carol (née Bartz).  He is of German descent, and his family's surname was originally "Stockmann".  He was raised in a conservative family his maternal grandfather, William Bartz, was a Republican county treasurer for 30 years.   Stockman was educated at public schools in Stevensville, Michigan. He graduated from Lakeshore High School in 1964  and received a BA in History from Michigan State University in 1968. He was a graduate theology student at Harvard University from 1968 to 1970.
He served as special assistant to United States Representative and 1980 U.S. presidential candidate John Anderson of Illinois, 1970–1972, and was executive director, United States House of Representatives Republican Conference, 1972–1975.
U.S. House of Representatives Edit
In 1976, Stockman was elected from Michigan's 4th congressional district to the House of Representatives for the 95th Congress. He was reelected in the two subsequent elections. In total, he served in the House from January 3, 1977, until his resignation on January 21, 1981, to accept appointment as Director of the Office of Management and Budget for President Ronald Reagan. 
Office of Management and Budget Edit
Stockman was one of the most controversial OMB directors ever appointed, also known as the "Father of Reaganomics." He resigned in August 1985. Committed to the doctrine of supply-side economics, he assisted in the passing of the "Reagan Budget" (the Gramm-Latta Budget), which Stockman hoped would curtail the "welfare state". He thus gained a reputation as a tough negotiator with House Speaker Tip O'Neill's Democratic-controlled House of Representatives and Majority Leader Howard Baker's Republican-controlled Senate. During this period, Stockman became well known to the public during the contentious political wrangling concerning the role of the federal government in American society.
Stockman's influence within the Reagan Administration was weakened after the Atlantic Monthly magazine published the infamous 18,246-word article, "The Education of David Stockman",  in its December 1981 issue, based on lengthy interviews Stockman gave to reporter William Greider.
Stockman was quoted as referring to Reagan's tax act in these terms: "I mean, Kemp-Roth [Reagan's 1981 tax cut] was always a Trojan horse to bring down the top rate. It's kind of hard to sell 'trickle down.' So the supply-side formula was the only way to get a tax policy that was really 'trickle down.' Supply-side is 'trickle-down' theory."  Of the budget process during his first year on the job, Stockman was quoted as saying, "None of us really understands what's going on with all these numbers," which was used as the subtitle of the article. 
After "being taken to the woodshed by the president"  because of his candor with Greider, Stockman became concerned with the projected trend of increasingly large federal deficits and the rapidly expanding national debt. On August 1, 1985, he resigned from OMB and later wrote a memoir of his experience in the Reagan Administration titled The Triumph of Politics: Why the Reagan Revolution Failed in which he specifically criticized the failure of congressional Republicans to endorse a reduction of government spending to offset large tax decreases to avoid the creation of large deficits and an increasing national debt.
Fiscal legacy Edit
President Jimmy Carter's last fiscal year budget ended with a $79.0 billion budget deficit (and a national debt of $907.7 billion as of September 30, 1980),  ending during the period of David Stockman's and Ronald Reagan's first year in office, on October 1, 1981.  The gross federal national debt had just increased to $1.0 trillion during October 1981 ($998 billion on September 30, 1981, up from $907.7 billion during the last full fiscal year of the Carter administration). 
By September 30, 1985, four and a half years into the Reagan administration and shortly after Stockman's resignation from the OMB during August 1985, the gross federal debt was $1.8 trillion.  Stockman's OMB work within the administration during 1981 until August 1985 was dedicated to negotiating with the Senate and House about the next fiscal year's budget, executed later during the autumn of 1985, which resulted in the national debt becoming $2.1 trillion at fiscal year end September 30, 1986. 
In 1981, Stockman received the Samuel S. Beard Award for Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. 
Business career Edit
After leaving government, Stockman joined the Wall St. investment bank Salomon Brothers and later became a partner of the New York–based private equity company, the Blackstone Group.  : 125–127 His record was mixed at Blackstone, with some very good investments, such as American Axle, but also failures, including Haynes International and Republic Technologies.  : 144–147 During 1999, after Blackstone CEO Stephen A. Schwarzman curtailed Stockman's role in managing the investments he had developed,  : 146 Stockman resigned from Blackstone to start his own private equity fund company, Heartland Industrial Partners, L.P., based in Greenwich, Connecticut. 
On the strength of his investment record at Blackstone, Stockman and his partners raised $1.3 billion of equity from institutional and other investors. With Stockman's guidance, Heartland used a contrarian investment strategy, buying controlling interests in companies operating in sectors of the U.S. economy that were attracting the least amount of new equity: auto parts and textiles. With the help of about $9 billion in Wall Street debt financing, Heartland completed more than 20 transactions in less than 2 years to create four portfolio companies: Springs Industries, Metaldyne, Collins & Aikman, and TriMas. Several major investments performed very poorly, however. Collins & Aikman filed for bankruptcy during 2005 and when Heartland sold Metaldyne to Asahi Tec Corp. during 2006, Heartland lost most of the $340 million of equity it had invested in the business. 
Collins and Aikman Corp. Edit
During August 2003, Stockman became CEO of Collins & Aikman Corporation, a Detroit-based manufacturer of automotive interior components. He was ousted from that job days before Collins & Aikman filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 on May 17, 2005.
Criminal and civil charges Edit
On March 26, 2007, federal prosecutors in Manhattan indicted Stockman in "a scheme. to defraud [Collins & Aikman]'s investors, banks and creditors by manipulating C&A's reported revenues and earnings." The United States Securities and Exchange Commission also brought civil charges against Stockman related to actions that he performed while CEO of Collins & Aikman.  Stockman suffered a personal financial loss, over $13 million, along with losses suffered by as many as 15,000 Collins & Aikman employees worldwide.
Stockman said in a statement posted on his law firm's website that the company's end was the consequence of an industry decline, not due to fraud.  On January 9, 2009, the US Attorney's Office announced that it did not intend to prosecute Stockman for this case. 
In March 2014 Stockman launched a web based daily periodical, David Stockman's Contra Corner, featuring both his own articles and those from leading contrarian thinkers on geopolitics, economics, and finance.
Woman in California Postal Shootings Had History of Bizarre Behavior
GRANTS, N.M., Feb. 2 - Two months before Jennifer San Marco fatally shot six postal workers in Goleta, Calif., and then killed herself, the police here were alerted to her bizarre behavior, the office manager of a mental health clinic said.
The manager, Darlene Hayes, who works at Cibola Counseling Services here, said she saw Ms. San Marco, 44, alone in a post office parking lot, kneeling at her car and talking to herself.
When she asked whether Ms. San Marco was all right, Ms. Hayes said, Ms. San Marco replied, "They pray before they get in."
Ms. San Marco told Ms. Hayes that she was talking about her brother and her sister, who she said were there with her.
Ms. Hayes, who has worked at mental health clinics for 18 years, called the police because she thought Ms. San Marco needed immediate psychological attention. After waiting several minutes, Ms. Hayes left the post office, anticipating that the police would help Ms. San Marco obtain a mental health evaluation.
"It seemed liked she was acting delusional," Ms. Hayes said. "I wanted the police to make contact with her and hold her for 24 hours so they could determine whether she needed a physician."
Lt. Maxine Spidle of the police said the department had no record of Ms. Hayes's call.
Ms. Hayes's encounter was hardly unique in this ramshackle dust-swept strip of a town near Milan, where Ms. San Marco lived for the last two years. To her neighbors, she was the woman who shouted furiously to herself, who ordered food at restaurants and bolted out the door before eating it, who knelt in prayer at the roadside and who peeled off her clothes in random parking lots.
Nobody knew where she came from or what she was doing here. People just knew there was something wrong.
"She would just come in here and stare at me," said Sonya Salazar, who works in Milan Village Hall. "We knew she had mental problems. We just felt sorry for her."
In July 2004, Ms. San Marco applied for a business license to start a publication, The Racist Press, Deputy Clerk Terri Gallegos said. It was denied.
Ms. San Marco's effort to license a cat food company was also denied.
On March 3, 2005, Ms. San Marco angrily visited Village Hall. She grew so irate that somebody called the police. By the time Chief Jerry Stephens arrived, she was gone.
On Thursday, postal inspectors, joined by local law enforcement officers, an explosives unit from the Albuquerque airport police and deputies from the sheriff's department in Santa Barbara County, Calif., searched Ms. San Marco's yellow two-story house on three acres of scrubland. They seized three boxes of "items of interest," said Amanda McMurrey, a spokeswoman for the postal inspectors.
Not everyone here had unsettling encounters with Ms. San Marco. For more than two years, Abel Ortega delivered propane gas to her. Mr. Ortega said she was polite and paid her bills promptly. Still, he said, he could not help noticing her behavior.
"Weɽ see her praying by the road, or talking to herself," Mr. Ortega said. "She had this imaginary friend."
Milan residents, in shock over the killings on Monday in California, including that of a former neighbor, are beginning to ask why Ms. San Marco was not receiving psychiatric help. Such care is scant in Grants and Milan, which are about 70 miles west of Albuquerque. Aside from a general hospital and a few clinics, the area has just a handful of mental health providers, said Vince Ashley, chief executive officer of Cibola General Hospital.
It is unclear what treatment Ms. San Marco did have. The Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Department has said she was briefly committed in California in 2001, but it has not disclosed additional information.
Experts in mental health treatment said they were not surprised that Ms. San Marco was not receiving hospital treatment.
Experts said that even in a place like Santa Barbara County, which has a reputation for reaching out to the mentally disabled, people slip through the cracks. Patients' rights laws make it difficult to commit people against their will or force them to take prescribed medication.
"It is very difficult to contain someone in a treatment facility as compared to how it was a decade ago," said Barry R. Schoer, executive director of the Sanctuary Psychiatric Center, a private center in Santa Barbara.
Forty-two states, including California, have established commitment laws for people in and out of treatment who show signs of being a danger to themselves or to others. They are collectively known as Kendra's laws, after Kendra Webdale, who was killed when a schizophrenic who had been in and out of treatment centers pushed her in front of a New York City subway train in 1999.
New Mexico does not have such a law, but legislators are considering a bill to establish one.
Jennifer L. Morgan
History of the Black Atlantic World Comparative Slavery, Gender and sexuality studies.
JENNIFER L. MORGAN is Professor of History in the department of Social and Cultural Analysis at New York University where she also serves as Chair. She is the author of Laboring Women: Gender and Reproduction in the Making of New World Slavery (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004) and the co-editor of Connexions: Histories of Race and Sex in America (University of Illinois Press, 2016). Her research examines the intersections of gender and race in in the Black Atlantic world. Her newest work, Reckoning with Slavery: Gender, Kinship and Capitalism in the Early Black Atlantic considers colonial numeracy, racism and the rise of the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in the seventeenth-century English Atlantic world and is forthcoming in Spring, 2021 with Duke University Press.
Her recent journal articles include “Partus Sequitur Ventrem: Law, Race, and Reproduction in Colonial Slavery,” in Small Axe “Accounting for ‘The Most Excruciating Torment’: Trans-Atlantic Passages” in History of the Present and “Archives and Histories of Racial Capitalism” in Social Text. In addition to her archival work as an historian, Morgan has published a range of essays on race, gender, and the process of “doing history,” most notably “Experiencing Black Feminism” in Deborah Gray White’s edited volume Telling Histories: Black Women Historians in the Ivory Tower (2007).
Morgan serves as the Council Chair for the Omohundro Institute for Early American History and Culture. She is the past-Vice President of the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians and is a lifetime member of the Association of Black Women Historians. She lives in New York City.
Jennifer M. Murray, Teaching Assistant Professor Ph.D., Auburn University
Address: 104 SSH (Stillwater) 2221 Main Hall (Tulsa)
Email: [email protected]
Spring 2021 Office Hours: Virtual office hours via Zoom by appointment only
Fields: American Military History, Civil War
I am an American military historian, with a research and teaching specialization in the U.S. Civil War. My first book, On A Great Battlefield: The Making, Management, and Memory of Gettysburg National Military Park, 1933-2013 was published by the University of Tennessee Press in 2014. While Gettysburg is the most studied battle of the Civil War, On A Great Battlefield offers a pioneering interpretation that moves the discussion beyond the July 1863 battle to an exploration of the history of the battlefield landscape. My research considers the nexus of preservation, interpretation, and memory at Gettysburg National Military Park from 1933, when the National Park Service acquired the battlefield, through the battle’s sesquicentennial in 2013.
My current book project is a biography of Union general George Gordon Meade. My research on Meade affords an opportunity to explore issues of high command within a fractured and politicized Army of the Potomac and addresses questions on the nature of civil-military relations, popular opinion, the media, and notions of a decisive battle. Tentatively titled Meade at War, this book will be published by Louisiana State University Press as part of the Conflicting Worlds Series.
In addition to classroom teaching, I am incredibly passionate about using battlefields as teaching and research tools. Among the highlights of my professional career, include my work as a seasonal interpretive park ranger at Gettysburg National Military Park for nine summers. Following that passion, I have led hundreds of Civil War battlefield tours, as well as a World War I and World War II study abroad trips.
American History to 1865 (HIST 1483)
Civil War & Reconstruction (HIST 3653)
Introduction to Historical Research & Writing (HIST 3903)
American Military History (HIST 4353)
Vietnam War (HIST 4543)
History & Film (HIST 4453)
World War II (HIST 4980)
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
101 Social Sciences and Humanities | Stillwater, OK 74078 | Phone: 405-744-5679
A Biography of Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer 1723-1790
Jenifer was born in 1723 of Swedish and English descent at Coates Retirement (now Ellerslie) estate, near Port Tobacco in Charles County, Md. Little is known about his childhood or education, but as an adult he came into possession of a large estate near Annapolis, called Stepney, where he lived most of his life. He never married. The web of his far-reaching friendships included such illustrious personages as George Washington.
As a young man, Jenifer served as agent and receiver-general for the last two proprietors of Maryland. He also filled the post of justice of the peace in Charles County and later for the western circuit of Maryland. In 1760 he sat on a boundary commission that settled disputes between Pennsylvania and Delaware. Six years later, he became a member of the provincial court and from 1773 to 1776 sat on the Maryland royal governor's council.
Despite his association with conservative proprietary politics, Jenifer supported the Revolutionary movement, albeit at first reluctantly. He served as president of the Maryland council of safety (1775-77), then as president of the first state senate (1777-80). He sat in the Continental Congress (1778-82) and held the position of state revenue and financial manager (1782-85).
A conservative nationalist, Jenifer favored a strong and permanent union of the states and a Congress with taxation power. In 1785 he represented Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference. Although he was one of 29 delegates who attended nearly every session of the Constitutional Convention, he did not speak often but backed Madison and the nationalist element.
Jenifer lived only 3 more years and never again held public office. He died at the age of 66 or 67 at Annapolis in 1790. The exact location of his grave, possibly at Ellerslie estate, is unknown.
U.S. Policy During the Holocaust: The Tragedy of the S.S. St. Louis
After Kristallnacht in November 1938, many Jews within Germany decided that it was time to leave. Though many German Jews had emigrated in the preceding years, the Jews who remained had a more difficult time leaving the country because emigration policies had been toughened. By 1939, not only were visas needed to be able to enter another country but money was also needed to leave Germany. Since many countries, especially the United States, had immigration quotas, visas were near impossible to acquire within the short time spans in which they were needed. For many, the visas were acquired after it was too late.
The opportunity that the S.S. St. Louis presented seemed like a last hope to escape.
The S.S. St. Louis, part of the Hamburg-America Line (Hapag), was tied up at Shed 76 awaiting its next voyage which was to take Jewish refugees from Germany to Cuba. Once the refugees arrived in Cuba they would await their quota number to be able to enter the United States. The black and white ship with eight decks held room for four hundred first-class passengers (800 Reichsmarks each) and five hundred tourist-class passengers (600 Reichsmarks each). The passengers were also required to pay an additional 230 Reichsmarks for the "customary contingency fee" which was supposed to cover the cost if there was an unplanned return voyage. 1 As most Jews had been forced out of their jobs and had been charged high rents under the Nazi regime, most Jews did not have this kind of money. Some of these passengers had money sent to them from relatives outside of Germany and Europe while other families had to pool resources to send even one member to freedom.
On Saturday, May 13, 1939, 937 passengers boarded. Women and men young and old. Each person who boarded had their own story of persecution.
Many other passengers had either left family members behind while some were also going to be meeting relatives that had traveled earlier. As the passengers boarded they remembered the many years of persecution that they had been living under. Some had come out of hiding to board the ship and none were certain that they would not receive the same kind of treatment once aboard. The Nazi flag flying above the ship and the picture of Hitler hanging in the social hall did not allay their fears. Earlier, Captain Gustav Schroeder had given the 231 member crew stern warnings that these passengers were to be treated just like any others. Many were willing to do this, two stewards even carried Moritz and Recha Weiler's luggage for them since they were elderly.
But there was one crew member who was disgusted by this policy and was ready to make trouble - Otto Schiendick the Ortsgruppenleiter. Not only was Schiendick ready to make trouble and was constantly trying, he was a courier for the Abwehr (German Secret Police). On this trip, Schiendick was to pick up secret documents about the U.S. military from Robert Hoffman in Cuba. This mission was code-named Operation Sunshine.
The captain made a note in his diary:
There is a somewhat nervous disposition among the passengers. Despite this, everyone seems convinced they will never see Germany again. Touching departure scenes have taken place. Many seem light of heart, having left their homes. Others take it heavily. But beautiful weather, pure sea air, good food, and attentive service will soon provide the usual worry-free atmosphere of long sea voyages. Painful impressions on land disappear quickly at sea and soon seem merely like dreams. 3
At 8:00 p.m. on the evening of Saturday May 13, the ship sailed.
Voyage of the SS St Louis
The Trip to Cuba
Only a half an hour after the S.S. St. Louis set sail, it received a message from Claus-Gottfried Holthusen, the marine superintendent of Hapag. The message stated that the S.S. St. Louis was to "make all speed" because there were two other ships (the Flandre and the Orduna) carrying Jewish refugees and heading for Cuba. 4 Though there was no explanation for the need to hurry, this message seemed to warn of impending trouble.
The passengers slowly started adjusting to life aboard a large ship. With lots of good food, movies, and swimming pools the mood began to relax a little. Children enjoyed each others' company and made new friendships as well as played childish pranks including locking bathroom stall doors and then climbing out underneath as well as soaping doorknobs. Several times Schiendick attempted to disturb this calm by posting copies of Der Stürmer, by substituting a newsreel with Nazi propaganda for the intended film, and by singing Nazi songs.
For Recha Weiler, who was helped by a steward with her luggage, her main concern was for her husband since his health continued to deteriorate. For over a week, the ship's doctor continued to prescribe medicine for Moritz Weiler but nothing helped. On Tuesday, May 23, Moritz passed away. Captain Schroeder, the purser, and the ship's doctor helped Recha to lay out her husband, provided candles, and found a rabbi on board. Though Recha wanted her husband buried once they reached Cuba, there was no storage facility where the body could be kept. Recha agreed to a burial at sea for her husband. To not unduly disturb the other passengers, it was agreed to hold the funeral at eleven o'clock the same night.
After the funeral rites were observed, the body was wrapped in a large Hapag flag that was then sewn up. Schiendick, trying to make trouble, insisted that the Party regulations stated that the bier, in a burial at sea, should be draped in a swastika flag. Schiendick's proposal was refused. That evening, after a short funeral service the body slid into the sea.
Within half an hour, a depressed crew member jumped overboard at the same location that the body had left the ship. The S.S. St. Louis turned around and sent out search parties. The likelihood of finding the man overboard was small and the delay cost the ship valuable time in its race to Cuba against the Flandre and the Orduna. After several hours of searching, the search was called off and the ship resumed its course.
The news of the two deaths disturbed the passengers and suspicions and tensions increased. For Max Loewe, who was already on edge, the deaths increased his psychosis. Max's wife and two children were increasingly worried about Max but tried to hide it.
Once the Captain received a cable on May 23 which stated that the S.S. St. Louis passengers might not be able to land in Cuba because of Decree 937, he felt it wise to establish a small passenger committee. The committee was to explore possibilities if there were problems landing in Cuba.
In Cuba in early 1939, Decree 55 had passed which drew a distinction between refugees and tourists. The decree stated that each refugee needed a visa and was required to pay a $500 bond to guarantee that they would not become wards of Cuba. But the decree also said that tourists were still welcome and did not need visas. The director of immigration in Cuba, Manuel Benitez, realized that Decree 55 did not define a tourist nor a refugee. He decided that he would take advantage of this loophole and make money by selling landing permits which would allow refugees to land in Cuba by calling them tourists. He sold these permits to anyone who would pay $150. Though only allowing someone to land as a tourist, these permits looked authentic, even were individually signed by Benitez, and generally were made to look like visas. Some people bought a large group of these for $150 each and then resold them to desperate refugees for much more. Benitez himself had made a small fortune in selling these permits as well as receiving money from the cruise line. Hapag had realized the advantage of being able to offer a package deal to their passengers, a permit and passage on their ship.
The President of Cuba, Frederico Laredo Bru, and his cabinet did not like Benitez making a great deal of money - that he was unwilling to share - on the loophole in Decree 55. Also, Cuba's economy had begun to stagnate and many blamed the incoming refugees for taking jobs that otherwise would have been held by Cubans.
On May 5, Decree 937 was passed which closed the loophole. Without knowing it, almost every passenger on the S.S. St. Louis had purchased a landing permit for an inflated rate which, by the time of sailing, had already been nullified by Decree 937.
Anticipation grew as the S.S. St. Louis neared the Havana harbor. No new mysterious or foreboding telegrams. No more deaths. Passengers enjoyed their last remaining days on ship and wondered what their new lives would be like in Cuba.
Late Friday afternoon, the last full day before the ship was to arrive, Captain Schroeder received a telegram from Luis Clasing (the local Hapag official in Havana) which stated that the St. Louis would have to anchor at the roadstead. Originally planning to dock at Hapag's pier, anchoring at the roadstead had been a concession by President Bru since he still disallowed the St. Louis passengers to land. Captain Schroeder went to sleep that night wondering about this change.
Arrival at Cuba
At three o'clock in the morning, the pilot boarded. Captain Schroeder was anxious to ask the pilot about the reasons that they were to anchor in the harbor but the pilot used the language barrier as a reason not to answer the captain's questions. A bell was rung at four in the morning to awaken the passengers and breakfast was served at half past four.
Cuban police and immigration officials boarded the St. Louis on Saturday morning. Then the immigration officials suddenly left with no explanation. The police stayed on board and guarded the accommodation ladder. Several officials boarded but then left without an explanation as to why they had to anchor in the harbor nor gave an assurance that the passengers would be allowed to disembark. As the morning elapsed, family and friends of the passengers who were in Cuba began renting boats and encircling the St. Louis. The passengers on board waved and shouted to those below, but the smaller ships weren't allowed to get too close.
The passengers remained anxious to disembark, not realizing the international and political negotiations which surrounded their fate.
Negotiations and Influences
Though a major player in the fate of the refugees since it was he who had signed their landing permits, he continually underestimated President Bru's stance. Benitez constantly maintained that Bru would back down since the St. Louis was allowed in the harbor. He wanted $250,000 in bribes so that he could try to amend his relations with Bru and rescind Decree 937. President Bru refused to listen to Benitez' requests. Though he no longer had access to Bru, he continued to espouse his assurance that Bru would back down. His confident attitude and slick talk convinced a number of influential people that the circumstances were not as serious as they seemed, thus action was not taken.
Luis Clasing & Robert Hoffman (Hapag officials in Havana)
Clasing met several times with Benitez, hoping that Benitez could assure that the passengers would be allowed to disembark. Benitez wanted $250,000 - enough to pay President Bru what would seem a share in the landing permit profits. This was too much for Hapag to pay. Hapag had already given Benitez many "bonuses" Benitez' request was in response to his lack of influence to change Bru's opinion.
Hoffman needed the ship to land so that he could meet with Schiendick and give him the secret documents. Captain Schroeder had refused to give shore leave to the crew so Hoffman needed to find a way on to the ship or a way to get Schiendick off.
Martin Goldsmith (director of the Relief Committee in Cuba which was financed by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee)
Before the St. Louis arrived in Havana, Goldsmith had repeatedly asked the Joint for additional funds to help the refugees already in Cuba and those about to arrive. The Joint refused. The local Jewish community donated to the Relief Committee but felt that the world should be helping. After the St. Louis arrived, the Joint began to realize the seriousness of the predicament. They would send two professionals to negotiate - but they would not arrive until four days later.
Joseph Goebbels & Anti-Semitism
Goebbels had decided to use the S.S. St. Louis and her passengers in a master propaganda plan. Having sent agents to Havana to stir up anti-Semitism, Nazi propaganda fabricated and hyped the passengers' criminal nature - making them seem even more undesirable. The agents within Cuba stirred anti-Semitism and organized protests. Soon, an additional 1,000 Jewish refugees entering Cuba was seen as a threat.
Stuck in Cuba
The anxiousness and expectation of imminent departure transformed into anxiety and suspiciousness as the waiting was prolonged from hours to days.
S.S. St. Louis surrounded by smaller vessels in the port of Havana (USHMM Photo)
On Monday, two days after arriving in Cuba, Hoffman found a way to board the St. Louis. Clasing had allowed Hoffman to go aboard in his place since Clasing was currently occupied about what he was to do with the 250 passengers who were supposed to board the St. Louis on a return voyage to Germany. Would President Bru allow 250 refugees to land so that these passengers waiting in Havana could make their return journey?
Hoffman had already hidden the secret documents in the spine of magazines, inside pens, and inside a walking cane, so he brought these with him to the ship. At the accommodation ladder, Hoffman was told he was allowed onto the ship but that he couldn't bring anything on board. Leaving his magazines and cane behind, Hoffman boarded with the pens. Sent directly to Captain Schroeder, Hoffman used the influence of the Abwehr to force Schroeder into allowing the crew to go to shore. Schroeder, shocked that the Abwehr was connected to his ship, acquiesced. After a quick meeting with Schiendick, Hoffman left the ship. With the change in shore leave policy, Schiendick was able to pick up the magazines and cane and reboard the St. Louis. Now, Schiendick became a major supported for a push to head back to Germany with no stop in America for fear of being caught with the secret documents.
On Tuesday, Captain Schroeder called the passenger committee for a meeting for only the second time. The committee had become distrustful of the captain. The St. Louis had sat in the harbor for four days before they were called. No good news had come forward and the passenger committee was asked to send telegrams to influential people, family, and friends asking for help.
Each day that the St. Louis sat in the harbor, Max Loewe became increasingly paranoid. His family had worried before, but Max became extremely disturbed believing that there were many SS and Gestapo on board plotting to arrest him and put him in a concentration camp.
On Tuesday, Max Loewe slit his wrists and jumped overboard at the same spot that the body had gone over the side. Splashing around as he clawed at his arms attempting to pull out his veins, Max Loewe drew the attention of many on board. The siren wailed for man-overboard and a courageous crew member, Heinrich Meier, jumped into the water. The siren and uproar drew police crafts to the area. After some struggle, Meier was able to grab Loewe and push him into a police boat. Loewe kept screaming and had to be tackled to keep him from jumping back into the water. He was taken to an awaiting ambulance and then to a hospital. His wife was not allowed to visit him.
The days continued to progress and the passengers all became increasingly suspicious and fearful. If they were forced back to Germany, they would surely be sent to concentration camps. The possible consequences of their return were loudly suggested in German newspapers and magazines.
For anyone thinking about jumping overboard, the chances were slim of their success with the increased number of police crafts, the searchlights that scanned the ship, and the dangling lights used to illuminate the water.
The world followed the fate of the passengers aboard the St. Louis. Their story was covered around the world. The U.S. Ambassador to Cuba met with an influential member of the Cuban government and spoke diplomatically about the precarious position the Cubans were now in. The Ambassador had spoken without direct instructions from the President but he made the concerns of the U.S. known. The Cuban Secretary of State stated that the subject was to be determined by the cabinet.
On Wednesday, the cabinet met. The passengers aboard the St. Louis would not be allowed to land, not even 250 to allow room for return passengers.
Captain Schroeder began to fear mass suicides on board. Mutiny was also a possibility. With the help of the passenger committee, "suicide patrols" were created to patrol at night.
The two Americans from the JDC had arrived in Havana and by Thursday, June 1, had befriended a couple of influential people who convinced President Bru to reopen negotiations. To their shock though, Bru would not negotiate until the St. Louis was out of Cuban waters. The St. Louis was given notice to leave within three hours. Pleading by Schroener that he needed more time to prepare for departure, the deadline was set back until Friday, June 2 at 10 a.m.
No options were left for the St. Louis, if they did not leave peacefully, they were to be forced out by the Cuban navy.
On Friday morning, the S.S. St. Louis roared up its engines and began to take its leave. Farewells were shouted overboard to friends and family in rented boats below.
The St. Louis was going to encircle Cuba, waiting and hoping for the conclusion of negotiations between the JDC representative, Lawrence Berenson, and President Bru.
The Cuban government wanted $500 per refugee (approximately $500,000 in total). The same amount as required for any refugee to obtain a visa to Cuba. Berenson didn't believe he would have to pay that much. Through negotiations, he believed it would only cost the JDC around $125,000.
During the following day, Berenson was approached by several men claiming affiliation with the Cuban government, one indentifying himself as having powers to negotiate bestowed by Bru. These men insisted that $400,000 to $500,000 were needed to ensure the St. Louis passengers' return. Berenson believed that these men just wanted a cut in the profit by negotiating a higher price. He was wrong.
The U.S. Denies Entry
While the negotiations continued, the St. Louis milled around Cuba and then headed north, following the Florida coastline in the hopes that perhaps the United States would accept the refugees. A U.S. Coast Guard ship and planes followed the St. Louis to prevent it from landing. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. learned of this from the newspapers but did not intervene beyond verifying with the Coast Guard commander the St. Louis was being followed.
Some of the passengers cabled the president and State Department asking that an exception be made to U.S. immigration policy so they could disembark in Miami. A New York Times report said, &ldquoThe refugees could even see the shimmering towers of Miami rising from the sea, but for them they were only the battlements of another Forbidden City.&rdquo
The president did not respond, but a State Department official telegraphed the passengers, telling them that they &ldquomust await their turns on the waiting list and qualify for and obtain immigration visas before they may be admissible into the United States.&rdquo
At the time, the U.S. had a quota allowing only 27,370 people from Germany and Austria combined to enter the country. That quota had already been filled and there was a waiting list of several years. These restrictions were supported by the American public. A Fortune Magazine, for example, found that 83 percent of Americans opposed relaxing restrictions on immigration.
Still, according to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, &ldquoPresident Roosevelt could have issued an executive order to admit the St. Louis refugees, but this general hostility to immigrants, the gains of isolationist Republicans in the Congressional elections of 1938, and Roosevelt&rsquos consideration of running for an unprecedented third term as president were among the political considerations that militated against taking this extraordinary step in an unpopular cause.&rdquo
Roosevelt was not alone, Canada&rsquos prime minister also refused to accept the passengers of the St. Louis. &ldquoIf these Jews were to find a home [in Canada],&rdquo immigration minister Frederick Blair said, &ldquothey would be followed by other shiploads&hellipthe line must be drawn somewhere.&rdquo
Meanwhile, the U.S. ambassador in Havana urged the Cuban government to allow the passengers to disembark.
The New York Times worte on June 8:
No plague ship ever received a sorrier welcome. Yet those aboard her had sailed with high hopes&hellip.Yet out of Havana Harbor the St. Louis had to go, trailing pitiful cries of &ldquoAuf Wiedersehen.&rdquo Off our shores she was attended by a helpful Coast Guard vessel alert to pick up any passengers plunged overboard and thrust him back on the St. Louis again. It is useless now to discuss what might have been done. The case is disposed of. Germany with all the hospitality of its concentration camps will welcome these unfortunates home&hellip. there seems to be no help for them now. The St. Louis will soon be home with her cargo of despair.
The Return Voyage
At this time, it was noticed that because of the lack of time to prepare for leaving port, the St. Louis would run into food and water shortages in less than two weeks. Telegrams continued to arrive insisting the possibility of landing in Cuba or even the Dominican Republic. Once a cable arrived stating the S.S. St. Louis passengers could land on the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isle of Pines), off of Cuba, Schroeder turned the ship around and headed toward Cuba.
The good news was announced to those on board and everyone rejoiced. Ready and awaiting a new life, the passengers prepared themselves for their arrival the next morning.
The next morning, a telegram arrived stating that landing at the Isla de la Juventud was not confirmed. Shocked, the passenger committee tried to think of other alternatives.
Around noon on Tuesday, June 6, President Bru closed the negotiations. Through a misunderstanding, the money allotment had not been agreed upon and Berenson missed a 48 hour deadline that he didn't know existed. One day later, the JDC offered to pay Bru's every demand but Bru said it was too late. The option of landing in Cuba was officially closed.
With a diminishing supply of food and pressures from Hapag to return to Germany, Captain Schroeder ordered the ship to change heading to return to Europe twenty-four days after leaving. As it left, a U.S. Coast Guard vessel followed to ensure no passengers tried to jump off the ship.
The following day, Wednesday, June 7, Captain Schroeder informed the passenger committee that they were returning to Europe. Though the situation was desperate there was still hope that negotiations for their landing in Europe somewhere other than Germany could be possible.
Through miraculous negotiations, the JDC was able to find several countries that would take portions of the refugees. 181 could go to Holland, 224 to France, 228 to Great Britain, and 214 to Belgium.
The passengers disembarked from the S.S. St. Louis from June 16 to June 20. Other ships were transformed to carry the passengers to their locations.
Having crossed the Atlantic Ocean twice, the passengers' original hopes of freedom in Cuba and the U.S. turned into a forlorn effort to escape sure death upon their return to Germany. Feeling alone and rejected by the world, the passengers returned to Europe in June 1939. With World War II just months away, many of these passengers were sent East with the occupation of the countries to which they had been sent.
The ship, meanwhile, was scheduled for a tourist cruise.
In 2012, the United States Department of State apologized to the survivors of the ship and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau did the same in 2018.
The French ship Flandre and the British Orduña, carrying 104 and 72 passengers, respectively, also sailed to Cuba in May 1939. After being turned away, the Flandre returned to France. The Orduña had no luck either and sailed to several Latin American ports before being allowed to disembark in the US-controlled Canal Zone in Panama. Most were later allowed into the United States.
Sources: This feature is reprinted with permission from Jennifer Rosenberg, a Guide at The Mining Company. Copyright © 1998 Jennifer Rosenberg.
Update regarding the Coast Guard role cited in a letter to AICE from Rafael Medoff, Director of The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies in Washington, DC. (May 20, 2014)
&ldquoVoyage of the St. Louis,&rdquo Holocaust Encyclopedia, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, (June 16, 2016)
Susan F. Martin, A Nation of Immigrants, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 163
Erin Blakemore, &ldquoA Ship of Jewish Refugees Was Refused US Landing in 1939. This Was Their Fate,&rdquo History.com, [undated]
&ldquoRefugee Ship,&rdquo New York Times, (June 8, 1939).
1 Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan Witts, Voyage of the Damned (New York: Stein and Day, 1974), p. 37.
2 Thomas, Voyage, p. 31.
3 Gustav Schroeder as quoted in Thomas, Voyage, p. 64.
4 Thomas, Voyage, p. 65.
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