Great Sphinx of Giza Timeline

Great Sphinx of Giza Timeline

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Great Sphinx of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza, commonly referred to as the Sphinx of Giza or just the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature. [1] Facing directly from west to east, it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The face of the Sphinx appears to represent the pharaoh Khafre. [2]

Cut from the bedrock, the original shape of the Sphinx has been restored with layers of limestone blocks. [3] It measures 73 m (240 ft) long from paw to tail, 20 m (66 ft) high from the base to the top of the head and 19 m (62 ft) wide at its rear haunches. [4] It is the oldest known monumental sculpture in Egypt and one of the most recognisable statues in the world. The archaeological evidence suggests that it was created by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of Khafre (c. 2558–2532 BC ). [5] [6] [7]


The Sphinx of Giza was constructed out of a single chunk of soft limestone bedrock. Because of the relative delicacy of this sandstone, the Sphinx would have crumbled to nothing if not for the protective sand helping to shield it. It stands more than 65 feet high, 241 feet long and 20 feet wide &ndash larger and taller than a six-story building. It faces due east, toward the rising sun. It is entirely composed of megaliths, or very large stone blocks. Some of these megaliths weigh 200 tons each.

The Construction of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt – a Contested Timeline

The colossal east-facing Sphinx monument (pictured) is widely recognised and admired. It sits on Egypt’s Giza plateau and has been the subject of much deliberation. Many Egyptologists have assumed, without scientific evidence, that the monument dates back to

2,500 B.C., attributing it to the Pharaoh Khafre (of the Old Kingdom’s 4 th Dynasty). Nevertheless, this estimated age does not follow the science. Some earlier archaeologists, from even the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, have suggested that the Sphinx doesn’t belong to its assigned timeline although they also had no evidence to corroborate their intuitive leaning.

French Egyptologist and mystic René Adolphe Schwaller de Lubicz popularized the idea that constructions adhered to sacred geometry in ancient Egypt. His work was examined by author and lecturer John Anthony West, who suspected that the monument was much older than was widely advocated. West was a proponent of the Sphinx water erosion hypothesis. In 1989, Robert M. Schoch, a geologist and associate professor of Natural Sciences at Boston University, accompanied West to Egypt to analyse the monument, with the aim of corroborating his hypothesis. On inspection, Schoch was adamant that the age of the Sphinx and its enclosure (the walls around the Sphinx) had been greatly underestimated. Schoch has also been an advocate of the Sphinx water erosion hypothesis since 1991 and his analysis demonstrates that the original construction of the Sphinx occurred before the end of the Younger Dryas (the last ice age, ending

Firstly, it’s understood that the Sphinx was carved out of the limestone bedrock, with only its head initially above ground. Noting the monument’s extensive repair work and focusing on the original construction, Schoch applied his expertise and swiftly concluded that chemical weathering of the limestone by precipitation had occurred. Rainfall runoff, flowing on the softer parts and into small cracks of the limestone, created deeper fissures. This explains the vertical fissuring and the eroded, undulating features of the limestone seen today on the Sphinx’s body and enclosure. He admits the evidence is verifiable and rejects previous hypotheses that attribute the weathering to wind and sand erosion. He also states that Nile flooding would give a different erosional characteristic.

Schoch attributes the erosional features to thousands of years of rainfall, and/or from extreme episodic rainfall events, and observes that

5000 years ago, the dry Saharan climate was not responsible. Climate change, involving a coronal mass ejection observed in isotope analysis, ended the Younger Dryas, increasing atmospheric moisture leading to precipitation and probably heavy flooding. Subsequent rainfall would have continued to erode the monument and its enclosure, producing the erosion we see today. The Giza savannas, as a result of climatic changes, became transformed during the Holocene (our current epoch) into what is now the Sahara desert plateau. Schoch consequently concludes that the initial construction of the Sphinx monument and its enclosure (before any modifications) occurred prior to the end of the Younger Dryas, and that Dynastic Egypt (currently assumed to be

5000 years ago) was instead a legacy of an earlier cycle of civilization.

Blocks weighing many tonnes, carved out from around the Sphinx during its construction, were transported to construct the Sphinx Temple and the Valley Temple. Notably, the Sphinx’s head is greatly disproportionate to its body, suggesting a later remodelling of the larger, original head, perhaps at Pharaoh Khafre’s request. Access to the network of underground tunnels beneath the Giza plateau is denied, adding to Egypt’s enigma.

Due to its east-facing position, I suggest that the Sphinx dates back to when sun-worshipping was practised, before the introduction of polytheism. Possibly, this former practice of ‘sun veneration’ had influenced the Pharaoh Akhenaten (formally Amenhotep IV, father of Tutankhamun and husband of Nefertiti) during his reign in the 18 th Dynasty. He changed his name to Akhenaten to tie in with the monotheistic worship of the Aton, or Aten (the sun’s disc), after abandoning the previous polytheistic worship of his predecessors.

A multi-disciplinary approach provides a better insight into the past, enhancing our appreciation of our ancestor’s magnificent achievements, of how they lived and thrived.

Facts About The Great Sphinx of Giza

  • The Great Sphinx is a colossal carving of a mythological creature with the head of a Pharaoh and body of a lion carved from a single massive limestone outcrop
  • Its axis is oriented East to West and it stands 20 metres (66 feet) high, 73 metres (241 feet) long and 19 metres (63 feet) wide
  • The Great Sphinx forms part of the sprawling Giza Necropolis complex on the west bank of the Nile
  • To date, no inscriptions have been discovered on the Great Sphinx indicating who built it, the date it was commissioned or its purpose
  • The most commonly accepted date for the Great Sphinx is around 2500 BC, however, some archaeologists or historians believe it is as much as 8,000 years old
  • Over the years, numerous attempts to stabilise and restore the Great Sphinx have been made, however, the Sphinx continues to deteriorate under the combined assaults of weather, climate and human air pollution.

Academic Disputes

Few ancient artifacts have garnered as many competing theories as to its age and origin as the Great Sphinx of Giza. New Age theorists, Egyptologists, history and engineering professors have proffered competing theories. Some claim the Sphinx is far older than the generally accepted 4th-Dynasty date accorded to by most mainstream Egyptologists. Some have propounded theories that the Great Sphinx is 8,000 years old.

While the archaeologists and Egyptologists vigorously debate who ordered the Sphinx to be shaped in their image and when it was refashioned, the one thing they can agree on is it remains a masterful work of art. Indeed, for centuries, the Great Sphinx was the world’s largest sculpture.

Why the Great Sphinx was created and what purpose it served remains hotly debated.

What’s In a Name?

The ancient Egyptians referred to the immense statue as shesep-ankh or “living image.” This name was also associated with other statues depicting royal figures. The Great Sphinx is actually a Greek name, which may have originated from the Greek legend of the mythical sphinx in the Oedipus tale where the beast combined the body of a lion with a woman’s head.

The Giza Plateau

The Giza Plateau is a large sandstone plateau overlooking the Nile River’s West Bank. It is one of the world’s great archaeological sites. The three majestic pyramids built by the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure physically dominate the plateau.

Alongside the Great Sphinx of Giza sits the three pyramids and the Giza Necropolis. The Great Sphinx is located slightly southeast of Khufu’s Great Pyramid.

Dating the Construction of the Great Sphinx

Mainstream Egyptologists largely agree the Sphinx was carved during the reign of Pharaoh Khafre around 2500 BC. Most Egyptologists agreed the Great Sphinx’s face is that of the Pharaoh Khafre’s likeness. However, there is some dissent over this time frame.

Currently, evidence supporting the theory of the Sphinx being carved during the reign of Khafre remains circumstantial. To date, no inscriptions have been discovered on the statue tying its construction to any specific pharaoh or date.

Initially, Egyptologists believed the Sphinx stele a slab of stone inscribed with hieroglyphs indicates the shifting desert sand buried the monument prior to Khafre’s reign. Contemporary theories point out that the artistic style of the Sphinx’s execution appears to align with the style of the Pharaoh Khufu, Khafre’s father.

Khafre’s Causeway especially seems to have been constructed to accommodate an existing structure, which could have only been the Great Sphinx. Another fringe theory is that the visible damage caused by water erosion on the Great Sphinx suggests it was carved during a time when Egypt experienced heavy rainfall. This factor places its construction around 4000 to 3000 BC.

What was the Great Sphinx’s Purpose?

If the Sphinx really was constructed during Khafre’s reign, it is likely it was built to celebrate the pharaoh. The Sphinx is just one of a cluster of structures built in honour of the sun god cult and the deceased pharaoh. The colossal structure could have been designed to associate the deceased king with Atum the sun god. One translation of the Egyptian name for the Sphinx is “living image of Atum.” Atum represented both the god of creation symbolized by the sunrise in the east and the setting sun in the west. Hence, the Great Sphinx was oriented along an east-west axis.

A Pharaoh’s Head and a Lion’s Body

At the heart of the Great Sphinx’s mystique were its lion’s body and its male head and human face. This current appearance is one of several forms the Sphinx is thought to have adopted. Considerable debate surrounds the Sphinx’s human head. One question is whether the Sphinx’s head was intended to be male or female. Another question is whether the face is typically African in form.

Early drawings depict the Sphinx as appearing clearly female, while others show it as definitively male. Complicating the discussion is the missing lips and nose. The Sphinx current flat profile adds to the difficulty of defining how the Sphinx appeared originally.

One fringe theory suggests the human inspiration for the Great Sphinx’s appearance may have sprung from an individual suffering from prognathism, which surfaces in a protruding jaw. This medical condition would manifest in lion-like features together with a flatter profile.

Some authors suggest the Great Sphinx has a strong connection with astrology. They claim the Great Sphinx’s lion shape is associated with the constellation of Leo, while the Giza pyramids are oriented towards the constellation of Orion with the Nile reflecting the Milky Way. Most Egyptologists view these claims as pseudoscience and dismiss their hypotheses.

Great Sphinx’s Construction

The Great Sphinx of Giza was carved from a single monumental limestone outcrop. This stratum displays marked colour variations graduating from soft yellow to a harsher grey. The body of the Sphinx was carved from the softer, yellow shades of stone. The head is formed from the harder grey stone. Other than the damage to the Sphinx’s face, its head remains its defining attribute. The Sphinx’s body has suffered from significant erosion.

The lower body of the Sphinx was built from massive stone blocks from the base quarry. Engineers also employed these blocks in constructing the neighbouring temple complex. Building began on the Sphinx with the excavation of aspects of the rock outcrop to remove some massive stone blocks. The monument was then carved from the exposed limestone. Unfortunately, this construction method frustrated attempts to use carbon dating techniques to pinpoint the Sphinx’s construction date.

Three tunnels have been discovered in the Sphinx. Unfortunately, the passage of time has obscured their original destinations. Similarly, the scarcity of inscriptions found on and around the Great Sphinx has limited our understanding of the structure, giving rise to the evocative “Riddle of the Sphinx.”

The Sphinx’s Rich Mythology

In ancient mythology, the Sphinx is a monster combing a lion’s body with a human head. Some cultures depict the Sphinx as having an eagle or a roc’s wings.

The ancient Greek’s version of their Sphinx myth shows the Sphinx with a woman’s head, in contrast to the earlier Egyptian myth, where the Sphinx had a man’s head.

In Egyptian mythology, the Sphinx was predominantly a benevolent creature, which acted as a guardian entity. By contrast, in Greek mythology, the Sphinx was a cruel monster, eternally ravenous that posed riddles before eating all those unable to correctly answer its riddles.

The Greek Sphinx was similarly shown as a guardian, but one renowned for its pitiless dealings with those it questioned. The Greek Sphinx guarded the city gates of Thebes. Believed to be a demonic manifestation heralding destruction and doom, the Greek Sphinx is usually shown with the head of a seductive woman, the wings of an eagle, a powerful lion’s body and a serpent as a tail.

Re-Discovery and Continuing Restoration Efforts

Thutmose IV launched the Great Sphinx’s first recorded restoration effort in around 1400 BC. He ordered the Sphinx’s now buried front paws to be excavated. The Dream Stele, a granite slab commemorating the work was left there by Thutmose IV. Egyptologists also suspect Ramses II ordered a second excavation effort sometime during his reign between 1279 and 1213 BC.

The first excavation attempt on the Sphinx of the modern era occurred in 1817. This major excavation effort successfully excavated the Sphinx’s chest. The Sphinx was uncovered in its entirety between 1925 and 1936. In 1931, the Egyptian government ordered engineers to restore the Sphinx’s head.

Even today, restoration work on the Sphinx continues. Unfortunately, much of the earlier masonry employed in its restoration has done more harm than good, while wind and water erosion has badly affected the Sphinx’s lower body. The layers on the Sphinx continue to deteriorate, particularly around its chest area.

Reflecting on the Past

The Great Sphinx has served as an enduring symbol of Egypt from ancient times to the present day. The Sphinx has fired the imaginations of poets, artists, Egyptologists, adventurers, archaeologists and travellers over the centuries. Its enigmatic style has also provoked endless speculation and contending theories concerning its age, its commissioning, its meaning or its inscrutable secrets.

From Overt To Covert Rule?

Many writers have suggested possible alien/human hybridization in antiquity. Furthermore, that the “gods” of such times were actually extra-terrestrial. And given the details mentioned above, Akhenaten is perhaps more important than most in terms of tracing this alien hybrid line.

Interestingly, the body of Akhenaten is always of an odd out of proportion shape in any depictions of him. His skull is also of a particularly strange shape. Does this suggest that perhaps Akhenaten was at least part extra-terrestrial? As crazy as that sounds, testing of DNA samples belonging to Akhenaten compared to “standard-human” DNA would highlight several differences. So much so, that theories began to abound that perhaps the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt had been “genetically modified” by an unknown alien race. Was Akhenaten the first of such beings? Or might this have been the case for thousands of years before that?

Author and researcher, David Icke has made similar assertions for decades. He even claims this bloodline did indeed come from beyond this planet. It would then go through Sumer and Babylon, to Ancient Egypt, and eventually through the royal families of Europe and subsequently to the people of influence in American and western society today. While many struggle with Icke’s reptilian alien claims, he is not the only one to suggest such a notion.

Icke also speaks of a time when this “rule” over humanity was not so covert. Was the sheer rejection of Akhenaten (including by his own family) when this began to happen? The answers to these seemingly bizarre questions may reside within the Great Sphinx.

The video below looks at Akhenaten in a little more detail.


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sphinx, mythological creature with a lion’s body and a human head, an important image in Egyptian and Greek art and legend. The word sphinx was derived by Greek grammarians from the verb sphingein (“to bind” or “to squeeze”), but the etymology is not related to the legend and is dubious. Hesiod, the earliest Greek author to mention the creature, called it Phix.

The winged sphinx of Boeotian Thebes, the most famous in legend, was said to have terrorized the people by demanding the answer to a riddle taught her by the Muses—What is it that has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?—and devouring a man each time the riddle was answered incorrectly. Eventually Oedipus gave the proper answer: man, who crawls on all fours in infancy, walks on two feet when grown, and leans on a staff in old age. The sphinx thereupon killed herself. From this tale apparently grew the legend that the sphinx was omniscient, and even today the wisdom of the sphinx is proverbial.

The earliest and most famous example in art is the colossal recumbent Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt, dating from the reign of King Khafre (4th king of 4th dynasty, c. 2575–c. 2465 bce ). This is known to be a portrait statue of the king, and the sphinx continued as a royal portrait type through most of Egyptian history. Arabs, however, know the Great Sphinx of Giza by the name of Abū al-Hawl, or “Father of Terror.”

Through Egyptian influence the sphinx became known in Asia, but its meaning there is uncertain. The sphinx did not occur in Mesopotamia until about 1500 bce , when it was clearly imported from the Levant. In appearance the Asian sphinx differed from its Egyptian model most noticeably in the addition of wings to the leonine body, a feature that continued through its subsequent history in Asia and the Greek world. Another innovation was the female sphinx, which first began to appear in the 15th century bce . On seals, ivories, and metalwork the sphinx was portrayed sitting on its haunches, often with one paw raised, and was frequently paired with a lion, a griffin (part eagle and part lion), or another sphinx.

About 1600 bce the sphinx first appeared in the Greek world. Objects from Crete at the end of the middle Minoan period and from the shaft graves at Mycenae throughout the late Helladic age showed the sphinx characteristically winged. Although derived from the Asian sphinx, the Greek examples were not identical in appearance they customarily wore a flat cap with a flamelike projection on top. Nothing in their context connected them with later legend, and their meaning remains unknown.

After 1200 bce the depiction of sphinxes disappeared from Greek art for about 400 years, though they continued in Asia in forms and poses similar to those of the Bronze Age. By the end of the 8th century, the sphinx reappeared in Greek art and was common down to the end of the 6th century. Often associated with Oriental motifs, it was clearly derived from an Eastern source, and from its appearance it could not have been a direct descendant of the Bronze Age Greek sphinx. The later Greek sphinx was almost always female and usually wore the long-tiered wig known on contemporary sculptures of the Daedalic style the body became graceful, and the wings developed a beautiful curving form unknown in Asia. Sphinxes decorated vases, ivories, and metal works and in the late Archaic period occurred as ornaments on temples. Although their context is usually insufficient to enable their meaning to be judged, their appearance on temples suggests a protective function.

By the 5th century clear illustrations of the encounter between Oedipus and the sphinx appeared on vase paintings, usually with the sphinx perched on a column (as can be seen on a red-figure Nolan amphora by the Achilles Painter in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston or on the Vatican Museum’s Attic cup). Other monuments of Classical age showed Oedipus in armed combat with the sphinx and suggested an earlier stage of the legend in which the contest was physical instead of mental. Of such a stage the literature gave no hint, but battles of men and monsters were common in Asian art from prehistoric times down to the Achaemenid Persians, and Greek art may have adopted from the Middle East a pictorial theme that Greek literature did not share.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

History of York

Read More Human beings have lived in the immediate York area since the Neolithic period (c.4000 &ndash 2000 BC).
Much of the surrounding Vale of York was probably unsuitable for settlement at this time because of its poorly drained and heavy clay soil which made farming difficult.
However, parts of the city sit on a ridge of high ground which was much more habitable.
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Outside the Walls

Great Sphinx of Giza

Read More Whilst northern Britain was still going through its Neolithic period, ancient Egypt had been building pyramids for about 500 years.

The magnificent Great Sphinx still stands at 20m high.

Stonehenge Building Works Finished

Read More About 3500 years ago ancient britons completed stonehenge.

The job wasn't rushed - works began on the site around 1600 years before that, in 3100 BC.

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Read More About this time the Iliad and the Odyssey were produced, the two most famous Greek epic poems.

In the same period, across the Ionian Sea, the city of Rome was founded.

Roman Empire Begins

Read More In 272 BC Rome became the dominant force in the whole of Italy.

Over the next 150 years the empire expanded into Sicily, Spain, Macedonia and Asia.

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The city of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate, and is located near the northeast border of this governorate. The city's population was reported as 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, [2] [3] while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census, without specifying what the city is. The former figure corresponds to the sum of 9 kisms.

Technically, Giza may not be an incorporated municipal unit, and therefore not a city at all. In a typical Egyptian fashion, there are two districts within the Governorate with the same name: a kism/qasm and associated markiz. Some 9 urban kisms of Giza Governorate form collectively a contiguous area of 98.4 km 2 on the Nile directly opposite Cairo, and recorded a preliminary count of 4,146,340 in 2017 census count, [4] not including the Al-Ḥawāmidiyah kism separated by Giza markiz. It is unclear if the 9 urban kisms represent a single entity the structure may be similar to that of 23 wards of Tokyo in that all local units are simply subordinate to the Prefecture of Tokyo without any intermediate municipal structure.

Region (Population) Area
km 2
per km 2
2006 2018 proj*
Giza, 9 kisms (contiguous) 2,681,863 4,521,647 98.4 45,952
Giza, 10 kisms (not contiguous) 2,822,271 4,716,617 115.7 40,766
Giza, 10 kisms + Giza markaz (contiguous) 3,063,777 5,094,164 187 27,241
Giza, 10 kisms + Giza, Kerdasa, Ossim markaz (contiguous) 6,083,790 338.9 17,951

Notes:2018 CAPMAS projection based on 2017 revised census figures, may differ significantly from 2017 census preliminary tabulations. The 9 kisms were reported simply as Giza city by CAPMAS in 2006 but given explosive growth definitions, likely informal, may have change or may be set to change. [4]

Giza's most famous landform and archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history, and is home to the Great Sphinx. Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, across the river from modern day Cairo. The Giza Plateau is also home to Egyptian monuments such as the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty, as well as that of Pharaoh Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty. The Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian, a reference point used for determining a base longitude. [5]

Climate Edit

Giza experiences a hot desert climate like arid climate (Köppen: BWh). Its climate is similar to Cairo, owing to its proximity. Wind storms can be frequent across Egypt in spring, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 to 20 °C (61 to 68 °F), while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C (45 °F). In summer, the highs are 40 °C (104 °F), and the lows can drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rain is infrequent in Giza snow and freezing temperatures are extremely rare.

Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C (115 °F) on 13 June 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 8 January 1966. [6]


Arnold, Dieter. "Old Kingdom Statues in their Architectural Setting." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 40, 42-43, fig. 21.

Breasted, James H., Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, Collected Edited and Translated with Commentary, Vol. 1: The First to the Seventeenth Dynasties. Ancient Records. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1906, pp. 83-85.

Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 8: 1936-1937. The Great Sphinx and its Secrets. Historical Studies in the Light of the Recent Excavations. Cairo: Government Press, 1953, pp. 5-11, 13, 24, 31-32, 51, figs. 2-21, 35-36, plan on pl. 16, pls. VI-XIV, XVIII-XIX, XXI, XXXVII.

Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 9: 1936-37-38. The Mastabas of the Eighth Season and their Description. Cairo: General Organisation for Government Printing Offices, 1960, folded plan, V/Y-6/7.

Hawass, Zahi. "Khufu's National Project: The Great Pyramid of Giza in the Year 2528 B.C." In Peter Janosi, ed. Structure and Significance: Thoughts on Ancient Egyptian Architecture, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005, pp. 315, 318, 322, 326.

Hawass, Zahi. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Egyptian Archaeologists." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 155, 157.

Hawass, Zahi. "The Discovery of the Harbors of Khufu and Khafre at Gîza." In Catherine Berger and Bernard Mathieu, eds. Études sur l'Ancien Empire et la nécropole de Saqqâra dédiées à Jean-Philippe Lauer. Orientalia Monspeliensia IX. Montpellier: Université Paul Valéry, 1997, pp. 246-248.

Hawass, Zahi. The Secrets of the Sphinx. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1998.

Hawass, Zahi. "The Discovery of a Pair-Statue near the Pyramid of Menkaure at Giza." Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 53 (1997), p. 293.

Hawass, Zahi. "Zahi Hawass talks to KMT about matters on the Giza Plateau (Interview)." KMT 8, no. 2 (Summer 1997), pp. 16-18, 25.

Hawass, Zahi. "The Great Sphinx at Giza: Date and Function." In Gian Maria Zaccone and Tomaso Ricardi di Netro (eds.) Sesto Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia. Atti, Volume II. Turin, 1993, pp. 177-195.

Hawass, Zahi. "A Burial with an Unusual Plaster Mask in the Western Cemetery of Khufu's Pyramid." In Renée Friedman and Barbara Adams, eds. The Followers of Horus. Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman 1944-1990. Egyptian Studies Association Publication No. 2. Oxbow Monograph 20. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1992, pp. 327-328.

Hawass, Zahi. "The Khufu Statuette: Is it an Old Kingdom Sculpture?" In Paule Posener-Kriéger, ed. Mélanges Gamal Eddin Mokhtar, vol. I. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1985, pp. 382-383, 391, 394.

Lehner, Mark. "Giza. A Contextual Approach to the Pyramids." Archiv für Orientforschung 32 (1985), pp. 136-143, 150-154, 158, figs. 2-4.

Lehner, Mark. "The Development of the Giza Necropolis. The Khufu Project." Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 41 (1985), p. 112, fig. 2.

Love, Serena. "Stones, Ancestors, and Pyramids: Investigating the Pre-pyramid Landscape of Memphis." In Miroslav Bárta, ed. The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology. Proceedings of the Conference held in Prague, May 31-June 4, 2004. Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, 2006, pp. 210-211.

Manuelian, Peter Der. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Giza Necropolis and Other Mastaba Fields." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 139-140, 146-147, 152, notes 5, 28, figs. 80, 90, 91.

Piankoff, Alexandre. "Two Reliefs in the Louvre Representing the Gizah Sphinx." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 18 (1932), pp. 155, 158.

Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 35-38, plan 6.

Quibell, A.A. The Pyramids of Giza. Cairo: C.M.S. Bookshop, undated, pp. 8, 9, 18-19, 24, unnumbered fig.

Reisner, George A. "Solving the Riddle of the Sphinx." Cosmopolitan Magazine 53 (1912), pp. 4-13.

Reisner, George A. "The Sphinx Awakens-Again." The Rotarian 49, No. 1 (July 1936), pp. 20-23.

Rowe, Alan. "Studies in the Archaeology of the Near East II: Some Facts Concerning the Gread Pyramids of el-Gîza and Their Royal Constructors." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 44, No. 1 (September 1961), pp. 101-102.

Unsigned. "The Dawn of Civilization in Egypt: Tracing the Culture of the Egyptians nearly to the Stone Age--Mummies Not of Ancient Origin--The Secret of the Sphinx Revealed." Science Conspectus 2, No. 3 (February 1912), pp. 72, 77.


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